Google Cloud Networking Services Cheat Sheet

Virtual Private Cloud

  • Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) provides networking functionality for the cloud-based resources and services that is global, scalable, and flexible.
  • VPC networks are global resources, including the associated routes and firewall rules, and are not associated with any particular region or zone.
  • Subnets are regional resources and each subnet defines a range of IP addresses
  • Network firewall rules
    • control the Traffic to and from instances.
    • Rules are implemented on the VMs themselves, so traffic can only be controlled and logged as it leaves or arrives at a VM.
    • Firewall rules are defined to allow or deny traffic and are executed within order with a defined priority
    • Highest priority (lower integer) rule applicable to a target for a given type of traffic takes precedence
  • Resources within a VPC network can communicate with one another by using internal IPv4 addresses, subject to applicable network firewall rules.
  • Private access options for services allow instances with internal IP addresses can communicate with Google APIs and services.
  • Shared VPC to keep a VPC network in a common host project shared with service projects. Authorized IAM members from other projects in the same organization can create resources that use subnets of the Shared VPC network
  • VPC Network Peering allow VPC networks to be connected with other VPC networks in different projects or organizations.
  • VPC networks can be securely connected in hybrid environments by using Cloud VPN or Cloud Interconnect.
  • Primary and Secondary IP address cannot overlap with the on-premises CIDR
  • VPC networks only support IPv4 unicast traffic. They do not support broadcast, multicast, or IPv6 traffic within the network; VMs in the VPC network can only send to IPv4 destinations and only receive traffic from IPv4 sources.
  • VPC Flow Logs records a sample of network flows sent from and received by VM instances, including instances used as GKE nodes.

Cloud Load Balancing

  • Cloud Load Balancing is a fully distributed, software-defined managed load balancing service
  • distributes user traffic across multiple instances of the applications and reduces the risk that the of performance issues for the applications experience by spreading the load
  • provides health checking mechanisms that determine if backends, such as instance groups and zonal network endpoint groups (NEGs), are healthy and properly respond to traffic.
  • supports IPv6 clients with HTTP(S) Load Balancing, SSL Proxy Load Balancing, and TCP Proxy Load Balancing.
  • supports multiple Cloud Load Balancing types
    • Internal HTTP(S) Load Balancing
      • is a proxy-based, regional Layer 7 load balancer that enables running and scaling services behind an internal IP address.
      • supports a regional backend service, which distributes HTTP and HTTPS requests to healthy backends (either instance groups containing CE VMs or NEGs containing GKE containers).
      • supports path based routing
      • preserves the Host header of the original client request and also appends two IP addresses (Client and LB )to the X-Forwarded-For header
      • supports a regional health check that periodically monitors the readiness of the backends.
      • has native support for the WebSocket protocol when using HTTP or HTTPS as the protocol to the backend
    • External HTTP(S) Load Balancing
      • is a global, proxy-based Layer 7 load balancer that enables running and scaling the services worldwide behind a single external IP address
      • distributes HTTP and HTTPS traffic to backends hosted on Compute Engine and GKE
      • offers global (cross-regional) and regional load balancing
      • supports content-based load balancing using URL maps
      • preserves the Host header of the original client request and also appends two IP addresses (Client and LB) to the X-Forwarded-For header
      • supports connection draining on backend services
      • has native support for the WebSocket protocol when using HTTP or HTTPS as the protocol to the backend
      • does not support client certificate-based authentication, also known as mutual TLS authentication.
    • Internal TCP/UDP Load Balancing
      • is a managed, internal, pass-through, regional Layer 4 load balancer that enables running and scaling services behind an internal IP address
      • distributes traffic among VM instances in the same region in a Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) network by using an internal IP address.
      • provides high-performance, pass-through Layer 4 load balancer for TCP or UDP traffic.
      • routes original connections directly from clients to the healthy backends, without any interruption.
      • does not terminate SSL traffic and SSL traffic can be terminated by the backends instead of by the load balancer
      • provides access through VPC Network Peering, Cloud VPN or Cloud Interconnect
      • supports health check that periodically monitors the readiness of the backends.
    • External TCP/UDP Network Load Balancing
      • is a managed, external, pass-through, regional Layer 4 load balancer that distributes TCP or UDP traffic originating from the internet to among VM instances in the same region
      • Load-balanced packets are received by backend VMs with their source IP unchanged.
      • Load-balanced connections are terminated by the backend VMs. Responses from the backend VMs go directly to the clients, not back through the load balancer.
      • scope of a network load balancer is regional, not global. A network load balancer cannot span multiple regions. Within a single region, the load balancer services all zones.
      • supports connection tracking table and a configurable consistent hashing algorithm to determine how traffic is distributed to backend VMs.
      • does not support Network endpoint groups (NEGs) as backends
    • External SSL Proxy Load Balancing
      • is a reverse proxy load balancer that distributes SSL traffic coming from the internet to VM instances in the VPC network.
      • with SSL traffic, user SSL (TLS) connections are terminated at the load balancing layer, and then proxied to the closest available backend instances by using either SSL (recommended) or TCP.
      • supports global load balancing service with the Premium Tier
        supports regional load balancing service with the Standard Tier
      • is intended for non-HTTP(S) traffic. For HTTP(S) traffic, GCP recommends using HTTP(S) Load Balancing.
      • supports proxy protocol header to preserve the original source IP addresses of incoming connections to the load balancer
      • does not support client certificate-based authentication, also known as mutual TLS authentication.
    • External TCP Proxy Load Balancing
      • is a reverse proxy load balancer that distributes TCP traffic coming from the internet to VM instances in the VPC network
      • terminates traffic coming over a TCP connection at the load balancing layer, and then forwards to the closest available backend using TCP or SSL
      • use a single IP address for all users worldwide and automatically routes traffic to the backends that are closest to the user
      • supports global load balancing service with the Premium Tier
        supports regional load balancing service with the Standard Tier
      • supports proxy protocol header to preserve the original source IP addresses of incoming connections to the load balancer

Cloud CDN

  • caches website and application content closer to the user
  • uses Google’s global edge network to serve content closer to users, which accelerates the websites and applications.
  • works with external HTTP(S) Load Balancing to deliver content to the users
  • Cloud CDN content can be sourced from various types of backends
    • Instance groups
    • Zonal network endpoint groups (NEGs)
    • Serverless NEGs: One or more App Engine, Cloud Run, or Cloud Functions services
    • Internet NEGs, for endpoints that are outside of Google Cloud (also known as custom origins)
    • Buckets in Cloud Storage
  • Cloud CDN with Google Cloud Armor enforces security policies only for requests for dynamic content, cache misses, or other requests that are destined for the origin server. Cache hits are served even if the downstream Google Cloud Armor security policy would prevent that request from reaching the origin server.
  • recommends
    • using versioning instead of cache invalidation
    • using custom keys to improve cache hit ration
    • cache static content

Cloud VPN

  • securely connects the peer network to the VPC network or two VPCs in GCP through an IPsec VPN connection.
  • encrypts the data as it travels over the internet.
  • only supports site-to-site IPsec VPN connectivity and not client-to-gateway scenarios
  • allows users to access private RFC1918 addresses on resources in the VPC from on-prem computers also using private RFC1918 addresses.
  • can be used with Private Google Access for on-premises hosts
  • Cloud VPN HA
    • provides a high-available and secure connection between the on-premises and the VPC network through an IPsec VPN connection in a single region
    • provides an SLA of 99.99% service availability, when configured with two interfaces and two external IP addresses.
  • supports up to 3Gbps per tunnel with a maximum of 8 tunnels
  • supports static as well as dynamic routing using Cloud Router
  • supports IKEv1 or IKEv2 using a shared secret

Cloud Interconnect

  • Cloud Interconnect provides two options for extending the on-premises network to the VPC networks in Google Cloud.
  • Dedicated Interconnect (Dedicated connection)
    • provides a direct physical connection between the on-premises network and Google’s network
    • requires your network to physically meet Google’s network in a colocation facility with your own routing equipment
    • supports only dynamic routing
    • supports bandwidth to 10 Gbps minimum to 200 Gbps maximum.
  • Partner Interconnect (Use a service provider)
    • provides connectivity between the on-premises and VPC networks through a supported service provider.
    • supports bandwidth to 50 Mbps minimum to 10 Gbps maximum.
    • provides Layer 2 and Layer 3 connectivity
      • For Layer 2 connections, you must configure and establish a BGP session between the Cloud Routers and on-premises routers for each created VLAN attachment
      • For Layer 3 connections, the service provider establishes a BGP session between the Cloud Routers and their edge routers for each VLAN attachment.
  • Single Interconnect connection does not offer redundancy or high availability and its recommended to
    • use 2 in the same metropolitan area (city) as the existing one, but in a different edge availability domain (metro availability zone).
    • use 4 with 2 connections in two different metropolitan areas (city), and each connection in a different edge availability domain (metro availability zone)
    • Cloud Routers are required one in each Google Cloud region
  • Cloud Interconnect does not encrypt the connection between your network and Google’s network. For additional security, use application-level encryption or your own VPN.
  • Currently, Cloud VPN can’t be used with Dedicated Interconnect.

Cloud Router

  • is a fully distributed, managed service that provides dynamic routing and scales with the network traffic.
  • works with both legacy networks and VPC networks.
  • isn’t supported for Direct Peering or Carrier Peering connections.
  • helps dynamically exchange routes between the Google Cloud networks and the on-premises network.
  • peers with the on-premises VPN gateway or router to provide dynamic routing and exchanges topology information through BGP.
  • Google Cloud recommends creating two Cloud Routers in each region for a Cloud Interconnect for 99.99% availability.
  • supports following dynamic routing mode
    • Regional routing mode – provides visibility to resources only in the defined region.
    • Global routing mode – provides has visibility to resources in all regions

Cloud DNS

  • is a high-performance, resilient, reliable, low-latency, global DNS service that publishes the domain names to the global DNS in a cost-effective way.
  • With Shared VPC, Cloud DNS managed private zone, Cloud DNS peering zone, or Cloud DNS forwarding zone must be created in the host project
  • provides Private Zone which supports DNS services for a GCP project. VPCs in the same project can use the same name servers
  • supports DNS Forwarding for Private Zones, which overrides normal DNS resolution for the specified zones. Queries for the specified zones are forwarded to the listed forwarding targets.
  • supports DNS Peering, which allows sending requests for records that come from one zone’s namespace to another VPC network with GCP
  • supports DNS Outbound Policy, which forwards all DNS requests for a VPC network to the specified server targets. It disables internal DNS for the selected networks.
  • Cloud DNS VPC Name Resolution Order
    • DNS Outbound Server Policy
    • DNS Forwarding Zone
    • DNS Peering
    • Compute Engine internal DNS
    • Public Zones
  • supports DNSSEC, a feature of DNS, that authenticates responses to domain name lookups and protects the domains from spoofing and cache poisoning attacks

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