AWS Certification – Identity & Security Services – Cheat Sheet

IAM – Identity & Access Management

  • securely control access to AWS services and resources
  • helps create and manage user identities and grant permissions for those users to access AWS resources
  • helps create groups for multiple users with similar permissions
  • not appropriate for application authentication
  • is Global and does not need to be migrated to a different region
  • helps define Policies,
    • in JSON format
    • all permissions are implicitly denied by default
    • most restrictive policy wins
  • IAM Role
    • helps grants and delegate access to users and services without the need of creating permanent credentials
    • IAM users or AWS services can assume a role to obtain temporary security credentials that can be used to make AWS API calls
    • needs Trust policy to define who and Permission policy to define what the user or service can access
    • used with Security Token Service (STS), a lightweight web service that provides temporary, limited privilege credentials for IAM users or for authenticated federated users
    • IAM role scenarios
      • Service access for e.g. EC2 to access S3 or DynamoDB
      • Cross Account access for users
        • with user within the same account
        • with user within an AWS account owned the same owner
        • with user from a Third Party AWS account with External ID for enhanced security
      • Identity Providers & Federation
        • AssumeRoleWithWebIdentity – Web Identity Federation, where the user can be authenticated using external authentication Identity providers like Amazon, Google or any OpenId IdP
        • AssumeRoleWithSAML – Identity Provider using SAML 2.0, where the user can be authenticated using on premises Active Directory, Open Ldap or any SAML 2.0 compliant IdP
        • AssumeRole (recommended) or GetFederationToken – For other Identity Providers, use Identity Broker to authenticate and provide temporary Credentials
  • IAM Best Practices
    • Do not use Root account for anything other than billing
    • Create Individual IAM users
    • Use groups to assign permissions to IAM users
    • Grant least privilege
    • Use IAM roles for applications on EC2
    • Delegate using roles instead of sharing credentials
    • Rotate credentials regularly
    • Use Policy conditions for increased granularity
    • Use CloudTrail to keep a history of activity
    • Enforce a strong IAM password policy for IAM users
    • Remove all unused users and credentials

Key Management Service – KMS

  • is a managed encryption service that allows the creation and control of encryption keys to enable data encryption.
  • provides a highly available key storage, management, and auditing solution to encrypt the data across AWS services & within applications.
  • uses hardware security modules (HSMs) to protect and validate the KMS keys by the FIPS 140-2 Cryptographic Module Validation Program.
  • seamlessly integrates with several AWS services to make encrypting data in those services easy.
  • supports multi-region keys, which are AWS KMS keys in different AWS Regions. Multi-Region keys are not global and each multi-region key needs to be replicated and managed independently.

CloudHSM

  • provides secure cryptographic key storage to customers by making hardware security modules (HSMs) available in the AWS cloud
  • helps manage your own encryption keys using FIPS 140-2 Level 3 validated HSMs.
  • single tenant, dedicated physical device to securely generate, store, and manage cryptographic keys used for data encryption
  • are inside the VPC (not EC2-classic) & isolated from the rest of the network
  • can use VPC peering to connect to CloudHSM from multiple VPCs
  • integrated with Amazon Redshift and Amazon RDS for Oracle
  • EBS volume encryption, S3 object encryption and key management can be done with CloudHSM but requires custom application scripting
  • is NOT fault-tolerant and would need to build a cluster as if one fails all the keys are lost
  • enables quick scaling by adding and removing HSM capacity on-demand, with no up-front costs.
  • automatically load balance requests and securely duplicates keys stored in any HSM to all of the other HSMs in the cluster.
  • expensive, prefer AWS Key Management Service (KMS) if cost is a criteria.

AWS Directory Services

  • gives applications in AWS access to Active Directory services
  • different from SAML + AD, where the access is granted to AWS services through Temporary Credentials
  • Simple AD
    • least expensive but does not support Microsoft AD advanced features
    • provides a Samba 4 Microsoft Active Directory compatible standalone directory service on AWS
    • No single point of Authentication or Authorization, as a separate copy is maintained
    • trust relationships cannot be setup between Simple AD and other Active Directory domains
    • Don’t use it, if the requirement is to leverage access and control through centralized authentication service
  • AD Connector
    • acts just as an hosted proxy service for instances in AWS to connect to on-premises Active Directory
    • enables consistent enforcement of existing security policies, such as password expiration, password history, and account lockouts, whether users are accessing resources on-premises or in the AWS cloud
    • needs VPN connectivity (or Direct Connect)
    • integrates with existing RADIUS-based MFA solutions to enabled multi-factor authentication
    • does not cache data which might lead to latency
  • Read-only Domain Controllers (RODCs)
    • works out as a Read-only Active Directory
    • holds a copy of the Active Directory Domain Service (AD DS) database and respond to authentication requests
    • they cannot be written to and are typically deployed in locations where physical security cannot be guaranteed
    • helps maintain a single point to authentication & authorization controls, however needs to be synced
  • Writable Domain Controllers
    • are expensive to setup
    • operate in a multi-master model; changes can be made on any writable server in the forest, and those changes are replicated to servers throughout the entire forest

AWS WAF

  • is a web application firewall that helps monitor the HTTP/HTTPS traffic and allows controlling access to the content.
  • helps protect web applications from attacks by allowing rules configuration that allow, block, or monitor (count) web requests based on defined conditions. These conditions include IP addresses, HTTP headers, HTTP body, URI strings, SQL injection and cross-site scripting.
  • helps define Web ACLs, which is a combination of Rules that is a combinations of Conditions and Action to block or allow
  • integrated with CloudFront, Application Load Balancer (ALB), API Gateway services commonly used to deliver content and applications
  • supports custom origins outside of AWS, when integrated with CloudFront
  • Third Party WAF
    • act as filters that apply a set of rules to web traffic to cover exploits like XSS and SQL injection and also help build resiliency against DDoS by mitigating HTTP GET or POST floods
    • WAF provides a lot of features like OWASP Top 10, HTTP rate limiting, Whitelist or blacklist, inspect and identify requests with abnormal patterns, CAPTCHA etc
    • a WAF sandwich pattern can be implemented where an autoscaled WAF sits between the Internet and Internal Load Balancer

AWS Secrets Manager

  • helps protect secrets needed to access applications, services, and IT resources.
  • enables you to easily rotate, manage, and retrieve database credentials, API keys, and other secrets throughout their lifecycle.
  • secure secrets by encrypting them with encryption keys managed using AWS KMS.
  • offers native secret rotation with built-in integration for RDS, Redshift, and DocumentDB.
  • supports Lambda functions to extend secret rotation to other types of secrets, including API keys and OAuth tokens.
  • supports IAM and resource-based policies for fine-grained access control to secrets and centralized secret rotation audit for resources in the AWS Cloud, third-party services, and on-premises.
  • enables secret replication in multiple AWS regions to support multi-region applications and disaster recovery scenarios.
  • supports private access using VPC Interface endpoints

Single Sign-On SSO

  • is a cloud-based single sign-on (SSO) service that makes it easy to centrally manage SSO access to all of the AWS accounts and cloud applications.
  • helps manage access and permissions to commonly used third-party software as a service (SaaS) applications, AWS SSO-integrated applications as well as custom applications that support SAML 2.0.
  • includes a user portal where the end-users can find and access all their assigned AWS accounts, cloud applications, and custom applications in one place.

AWS Shield

  • is a managed service that provides protection against Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks for applications running on AWS
  • provides protection for all AWS customers against common and most frequently occurring infrastructure (layer 3 and 4) attacks like SYN/UDP floods, reflection attacks, and others to support high availability of applications on AWS.
  • provides AWS Shield Advanced with additional protections against more sophisticated and larger attacks for applications running on EC2, ELB, CloudFront, AWS Global Accelerator, and Route 53.

AWS GuardDuty

  • offers threat detection that enables continuous monitoring and protect the AWS accounts and workloads.
  • analyzes continuous streams of meta-data generated from AWS account and network activity found in AWS CloudTrail Events, VPC Flow Logs, and DNS Logs.
  • integrated threat intelligence such as known malicious IP addresses, anomaly detection, and machine learning to identify threats more accurately.
  • operates completely independently from the resources so there is no risk of performance or availability impacts to the workloads.
  • supports suppression rules, trusted IP list and thread list.

Amazon Inspector

  • is a vulnerability management service that continuously scans the AWS workloads for vulnerabilities
  • automatically discovers and scans EC2 instances and container images residing in Elastic Container Registry (ECR) for software vulnerabilities and unintended network exposure.
  • creates a finding, when a software vulnerability or network issue is discovered, that describes the vulnerability, rates its severity, identifies the affected resource,  and provides remediation guidance.
  • is a Regional service.
  • requires Systems Manager (SSM) agent to be installed and enabled.

AWS Artifact

  • is a self-service audit artifact retrieval portal that provides customers with on-demand access to AWS’ compliance documentation and agreements
  • can use AWS Artifact Reports to download AWS security and compliance documents, such as AWS ISO certifications, Payment Card Industry (PCI), and System and Organization Control (SOC) reports.

9 thoughts on “AWS Certification – Identity & Security Services – Cheat Sheet

  1. Please add more services here

    AWS Shield
    AWS Systems Manager
    AWS GuardDuty
    AWS Config

    above are the few services to name

  2. thanks! this is awesome.. but why is the WAF crossed out? Is the information outdated or has the service been retired entirely?

    1. Thanks peter, the first half is relevant but cause of editor issues are crossed out. The Third party WAF is no more relevant now as it is provided as a managed service by AWS.

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