AWS EBS Performance – Certification

AWS EBS Performance Tips

EBS Performance depends on several factores including I/O characteristics and the configuration of instances and volumes and can be improved using PIOPS, EBS-Optimized instances, Pre-Warming and RAIDed configuration

EBS-Optimized or 10 Gigabit Network Instances

  • An EBS-Optimized instance uses an optimized configuration stack and provides additional, dedicated capacity for EBS I/O.
  • Optimization provides the best performance for the EBS volumes by minimizing contention between EBS I/O and other traffic from a instance.
  • EBS-Optimized instances deliver dedicated throughput to EBS, with options between 500 Mbps and 4,000 Mbps, depending on the instance type used
  • Not all instance types support EBS-Optimization
  • Some Instance type enable EBS-Optimization by default, while it can be enabled for some.
  • EBS optimization enabled for an instance, that is not EBS-Optimized by default, an additional low, hourly fee for the dedicated capacity is charged
  • When attached to an EBS–optimized instance,
    • General Purpose (SSD) volumes are designed to deliver within 10% of their baseline and burst performance 99.9% of the time in a given year
    • Provisioned IOPS (SSD) volumes are designed to deliver within 10% of their provisioned performance 99.9 percent of the time in a given year.

EBS Volume Initialization – Pre-warming

  • New EBS volumes receive their maximum performance the moment that they are available and DO NOT require initialization (pre-warming).
  • EBS volumes needed a pre-warming, previously, before being used to get maximum performance to start with. Pre-warming of the volume was possible by writing to the entire volume with 0 for new volumes or reading entire volume for volumes from snapshots
  • Storage blocks on volumes that were restored from snapshots must be initialized (pulled down from S3 and written to the volume) before the block can be accessed
  • This preliminary action takes time and can cause a significant increase in the latency of an I/O operation the first time each block is accessed.

RAID Configuration

  • EBS volumes can be striped, if a single EBS volume does not meet the performance and more is required.
  • Striping volumes allows pushing tens of thousands of IOPS.
  • EBS volumes are already replicated across multiple servers in an AZ for availability and durability, so AWS generally recommend striping for performance rather than durability.
  • For greater I/O performance than can be achieved with a single volume, RAID 0 can stripe multiple volumes together; for on-instance redundancy, RAID 1 can mirror two volumes together.
  • RAID 0 allows I/O distribution across all volumes in a stripe, allowing straight gains with each addition.
  • RAID 1 can be used for durability to mirror volumes, but in this case, it requires more EC2 to EBS bandwidth as the data is written to multiple volumes simultaneously and should be used with EBS–optimization.
  • EBS volume data is replicated across multiple servers in an AZ to prevent the loss of data from the failure of any single component
  • AWS doesn’t recommend RAID 5 and 6 because the parity write operations of these modes consume the IOPS available for the volumes and can result in 20-30% fewer usable IOPS than a RAID 0.
  • A 2-volume RAID 0 config can outperform a 4-volume RAID 6 that costs twice as much.

RAID Configuration

AWS Certification Exam Practice Questions

  • Questions are collected from Internet and the answers are marked as per my knowledge and understanding (which might differ with yours).
  • AWS services are updated everyday and both the answers and questions might be outdated soon, so research accordingly.
  • AWS exam questions are not updated to keep up the pace with AWS updates, so even if the underlying feature has changed the question might not be updated
  • Open to further feedback, discussion and correction.
  1. A user is trying to pre-warm a blank EBS volume attached to a Linux instance. Which of the below mentioned steps should be performed by the user?
    1. There is no need to pre-warm an EBS volume (with latest update no pre-warming is needed)
    2. Contact AWS support to pre-warm (This used to be the case before, but pre warming is not necessary now)
    3. Unmount the volume before pre-warming
    4. Format the device
  2. A user has created an EBS volume of 10 GB and attached it to a running instance. The user is trying to access EBS for first time. Which of the below mentioned options is the correct statement with respect to a first time EBS access?
    1. The volume will show a size of 8 GB
    2. The volume will show a loss of the IOPS performance the first time (the volume needed to be wiped cleaned before for new volumes, however pre warming is not needed any more)
    3. The volume will be blank
    4. If the EBS is mounted it will ask the user to create a file system
  3. You are running a database on an EC2 instance, with the data stored on Elastic Block Store (EBS) for persistence At times throughout the day, you are seeing large variance in the response times of the database queries Looking into the instance with the isolate command you see a lot of wait time on the disk volume that the database’s data is stored on. What two ways can you improve the performance of the database’s storage while maintaining the current persistence of the data? Choose 2 answers
    1. Move to an SSD backed instance
    2. Move the database to an EBS-Optimized Instance
    3. Use Provisioned IOPs EBS
    4. Use the ephemeral storage on an m2.4xLarge Instance Instead
  4. You have launched an EC2 instance with four (4) 500 GB EBS Provisioned IOPS volumes attached. The EC2 Instance is EBS-Optimized and supports 500 Mbps throughput between EC2 and EBS. The two EBS volumes are configured as a single RAID 0 device, and each Provisioned IOPS volume is provisioned with 4,000 IOPS (4000 16KB reads or writes) for a total of 16,000 random IOPS on the instance. The EC2 Instance initially delivers the expected 16,000 IOPS random read and write performance. Sometime later in order to increase the total random I/O performance of the instance, you add an additional two 500 GB EBS Provisioned IOPS volumes to the RAID. Each volume is provisioned to 4,000 IOPS like the original four for a total of 24,000 IOPS on the EC2 instance Monitoring shows that the EC2 instance CPU utilization increased from 50% to 70%, but the total random IOPS measured at the instance level does not increase at all. What is the problem and a valid solution?
    1. Larger storage volumes support higher Provisioned IOPS rates: increase the provisioned volume storage of each of the 6 EBS volumes to 1TB.
    2. EBS-Optimized throughput limits the total IOPS that can be utilized use an EBS-Optimized instance that provides larger throughput. (EC2 Instance types have limit on max throughput and would require larger instance types to provide 24000 IOPS)
    3. Small block sizes cause performance degradation, limiting the I’O throughput, configure the instance device driver and file system to use 64KB blocks to increase throughput.
    4. RAID 0 only scales linearly to about 4 devices, use RAID 0 with 4 EBS Provisioned IOPS volumes but increase each Provisioned IOPS EBS volume to 6.000 IOPS.
    5. The standard EBS instance root volume limits the total IOPS rate, change the instant root volume to also be a 500GB 4,000 Provisioned IOPS volume
  5. A user has deployed an application on an EBS backed EC2 instance. For a better performance of application, it requires dedicated EC2 to EBS traffic. How can the user achieve this?
    1. Launch the EC2 instance as EBS provisioned with PIOPS EBS
    2. Launch the EC2 instance as EBS enhanced with PIOPS EBS
    3. Launch the EC2 instance as EBS dedicated with PIOPS EBS
    4. Launch the EC2 instance as EBS optimized with PIOPS EBS

AWS Storage Options – EBS & Instance Store

Elastic Block Store (EBS) volume

  • EBS provides durable block-level storage for use with EC2 instances
  • EBS volumes are off-instance, network-attached storage (NAS) that persists independently from the running life of a single EC2 instance.
  • EBS volume is attached to an instance, can be used as a physical hard drive, typically by formatting it with the file system of your choice and using the file I/O interface provided by the instance operating system.
  • EBS volume can be used to boot an EC2 instance (EBS-root AMIs only), and multiple EBS volumes can be attached to a single EC2 instance.
  • EBS volume can be attached to a Single EC2 instance only at any point of time
  • EBS Multi-Attach volume can be attached to multiple EC2 instances
  • EBS provides the ability to take point-in-time snapshots, which are persisted in S3. These snapshots can be used to instantiate new EC2 volumes and to protect data for long-term durability
  • EBS snapshots can be copied across AWS regions as well, making it easier to leverage multiple AWS regions for geographical expansion, data center migration, and disaster recovery

Ideal Usage Patterns

  • EBS is meant for data that changes relatively frequently and requires long-term persistence.
  • EBS volume provide access to raw block-level storage and is particularly well-suited for use as the primary storage for a database or file system
  • EBS Provisioned IOPS volumes are particularly well-suited for use with databases applications that require a high and consistent rate of random disk reads and writes

Anti-Patterns

  • Temporary Storage
    • EBS volume persists independent of the attached EC2 life cycle.
    • For temporary storage such as caches, buffers, queues, etc it is better to use local instance store volumes, SQS, or Elastic Cache
  • Highly-durable storage
    • EBS volumes with less than 20 GB of modified data since the last snapshot are designed for between 99.5% and 99.9% annual durability; volumes with more modified data can be expected to have proportionally lower durability
    • For highly durable storage, use S3 or Glacier which provides 99.999999999% annual durability per object
  • Static data or web content
    • For static web content, where data infrequently changes, EBS with EC2 would require a web server to serve the pages.
    • S3 may represent a more cost-effective and scalable solution for storing this fixed information and is served directly out of S3.

EBS Performance

  • EBS provides two volume types: standard volumes and Provisioned IOPS volumes which differ in performance characteristics and pricing model, allowing you to tailor the storage performance and cost to the needs of the applications.
  • EBS Volumes can be attached and striped across multiple similarly-provisioned EBS volumes using RAID 0 or logical volume manager software, thus aggregating available IOPs, total volume throughput, and total volume size.
  • Standard volumes offer cost-effective storage for applications with moderate or bursty I/O requirements. Standard volumes are also well suited for use as boot volumes, where the burst capability provides fast instance start-up times.
  • Provisioned IOPS volumes are designed to deliver predictable, high performance for I/O intensive workloads such as databases. With Provisioned IOPS, you specify an IOPS rate when creating a volume, and then EBS provisions that rate for the lifetime of the volume.
  • As EBS volumes are network-attached devices, other network I/O performed by the instance, as well as the total load on the shared network, can affect individual EBS volume performance.
  • EBS optimized instances can be launched which deliver dedicated throughput between EC2 and EBS and enables instances to fully utilize the Provisioned IOPS on an EBS volume,
  • Each separate EBS volume can be configured as EBS standard or EBS Provisioned IOPS as needed. Alternatively, you could stripe the data.

EBS Durability & Availability

  • EBS volumes are designed to be highly available and reliable
  • EBS volume data is replicated across multiple servers in a single AZ to prevent the loss of data from the failure of any single component
  • The durability of the EBS volume depends on both the size of the volume and the amount of data that has changed since your last snapshot
  • EBS snapshots are incremental, point-in-time backups, containing only the data blocks changed since the last snapshot.
  • Frequent snapshots are recommended to maximize both the durability and availability of their  EBS data
  • EBS snapshots provide an easy-to-use disk clone or disk image mechanism for backup, sharing, and disaster recovery.

EBS Cost Model

  • EBS pricing has 3 components: provisioned storage, I/O requests, and snapshot storage
  • Standard volumes are charged per GB-month of provisioned storage and per million I/O requests
  • EBS Provisioned IOPS volumes are charged per GB-month of provisioned storage and per Provisioned IOPS-month
  • For both volumes, EBS snapshots are charged per GB-month of data stored. EBS snapshot copy is charged for the data transferred between regions, and for the standard EBS snapshot charges in the destination region.
  • For an EBS volume, all storage is allocated at the time of volume creation, and that you are charged for this allocated storage even if you don’t write data to it.
  • For EBS snapshots, you are charged only for storage actually used (consumed). Note that EBS snapshots are incremental and compressed, so the storage used in any snapshot is generally much less than the storage consumed on an EBS volume

EBS Scalability and Elasticity

  • EBS volumes can easily and rapidly be provisioned and released to scale in and out with the changing total storage demands
  • EBS volumes cannot be resized, and if additional storage is needed either
    • An additional volume can be attached
    • Create a snapshot and create a new volume from the snapshot with a higher volume size
  • EBS volumes can be resized dynamically, but cannot be reduced by size.

Interfaces

  • AWS offers management APIs for EBS in both SOAP and REST formats which can be used to create, delete, describe, attach, and detach EBS volumes for the EC2 instances as well as to create, delete, and describe snapshots from EBS to S3; and to copy snapshots across regions.
  • Amazon also offers the same capabilities through AWS Management Console

Instance Store Volumes

  • Instance Store volumes, also referred to as Ephemeral Storage, provide temporary block-level storage and consists of preconfigured and pre-attached block of disk storage on the same physical server as the EC2 instance
  • Instance storage’s amount of disk storage depends on the Instance type and larger instances provide both more and larger instance store volumes. Smaller instance types such as micro instances can only be launched with EBS volumes.
  • Storage optimized instances provides special purpose instance storage targeted to specific uses case for e.g. HI1 provides very fast solid-state drive (SSD) backed instance storage are capable of supporting over 120,000 random read IOPS, and are optimized for very high random I/O performance and low cost per IOPS. While, HS1 instances are optimized for very high storage density, low storage cost, and high sequential I/O performance.
  • Instance store volumes, unlike EBS volumes, cannot be detached or attached to another instance

Ideal Usage Patterns

  • EC2 local instance store volumes are fast, free (that is, included in the price of the EC2 instance) “scratch volumes” best suited for storing temporary data that is continually changing, such as buffers, caches, scratch data or can easily be regenerated, or data that is replicated for durability
  • High I/O instances provide instance store volumes backed by SSD, and are ideally suited for many high performance database workloads. for e.g. applications include NoSQL databases like Cassandra and MongoDB.
  • High storage instances support much higher storage density per EC2 instance and are ideally suited for applications that benefit from high sequential I/O performance across very large datasets. e.g. applications include data warehouses, Hadoop storage nodes, seismic analysis, cluster file systems, etc.

Anti-Patterns

  • Persistent storage
    • For persistent virtual disk storage similar to a physical disk drive for files or other data that must persist longer than the lifetime of a single  EC2 instance, EBS volumes or S3 are more appropriate.
  • Relational database storage
    • In most cases, relational databases require storage that persists beyond the lifetime of a single EC2 instance, making EBS volumes the natural choice.
  • Shared storage
    • Instance store volumes are dedicated to a single EC2 instance, and cannot be shared with other systems or users.
    • If you need storage that can be detached from one instance and attached to a different instance, or if you need the ability to share data easily, S3 or EBS volumes are the better choices.
  • Snapshots
    • If you need the convenience, long-term durability, availability, and shareability of point-in-time disk snapshots, EBS volumes are a better choice.

Instance Store Performance

  • Non-SSD-based instance store volumes in most EC2 instance families have performance characteristics similar to standard EBS volumes.
  • EC2 instance virtual machine and the local instance store volumes are located in the same physical server, interaction with the storage is very fast, particularly for sequential access.
  • To further increase aggregate IOPS, or to improve sequential disk throughput, multiple instance store volumes can be grouped together using RAID 0 (disk striping) software.
  • Because the bandwidth to the disks is not limited by the network, aggregate sequential throughput for multiple instance volumes can be higher than for the same number of EBS volumes.
  • SSD instance store volumes in the EC2 high I/O instances provide from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of low-latency, random 4 KB random IOPS.
  • Because of the I/O characteristics of SSD devices, write performance can be variable.
  • Instance store volumes on EC2 high storage instances provide very high storage density and high sequential read and write performance. High storage instances are capable of delivering 2.6 GB/sec of sequential read and write performance when using a block size of 2 MB.

Instance Store Durability and Availability

  • EC2 local instance store volumes are not intended to be used as durable disk storage and they persist only during the life of the associate EC2 instance

Cost Model

  • Cost of the EC2 instance includes any local instance store volumes if the instance type provides them.
  • While there is no additional charge for data storage on local instance store volumes, note that data transferred to and from EC2 instance store volumes from other AZs or outside of an EC2 region may incur data transfer charges, and additional charges will apply for use of any persistent storage, such as S3, Glacier, EBS volumes, and EBS snapshots

Scalability and Elasticity

  • Local instance store volumes are tied to a particular EC2 instance and are fixed in number and size for a given EC2 instance type, so the scalability and elasticity of this storage are tied to the number of EC2 instances.

Interfaces

  • Instance store volumes are specified using the block device mapping feature of the EC2 API and the AWS Management Console
  • To the EC2 instance, an instance store volume appears just like a local disk drive. To write to and read data from instance store volumes, use the native file system I/O interfaces of the chosen operating system.

AWS Certification Exam Practice Questions

  • Questions are collected from Internet and the answers are marked as per my knowledge and understanding (which might differ with yours).
  • AWS services are updated everyday and both the answers and questions might be outdated soon, so research accordingly.
  • AWS exam questions are not updated to keep up the pace with AWS updates, so even if the underlying feature has changed the question might not be updated
  • Open to further feedback, discussion and correction.
  1. Which of the following provides the fastest storage medium?
    1. Amazon S3
    2. Amazon EBS using Provisioned IOPS (PIOPS)
    3. SSD Instance (ephemeral) store (SSD Instance Storage provides 100,000 IOPS on some instance types, much faster than any network-attached storage)
    4. AWS Storage Gateway

References

AWS EC2 Storage – Certification

EC2 Storage Overview

  • Amazon EC2 provides flexible, cost effective and easy-to-use EC2 storage options with a unique combination of performance and durability
    • Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS)
    • Amazon EC2 Instance Store
    • Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)
  • While EBS and Instance store are Block level, Amazon S3 is an Object level storage

EC2 Storage Options - EBS, S3 & Instance Store

Storage Types

Amazon EBS

More details @ AWS EC2 EBS Storage

Amazon Instance Store

More details @ AWS EC2 Instance Store Storage

Amazon EBS vs Instance Store

More detailed @ Comparison of EBS vs Instance Store

Amazon S3

More details @ AWS S3

Block Device Mapping

  • A block device is a storage device that moves data in sequences of bytes or bits (blocks) and supports random access and generally use buffered I/O for e.g. hard disks, CD-ROM etc
  • Block devices can be physically attached to a computer (like an instance store volume) or can be accessed remotely as if it was attached (like an EBS volume)
  • Block device mapping defines the block devices to be attached to an instance, which can either be done while creation of an AMI or when an instance is launched
  • Block device must be mounted on the instance, after being attached to the instance, to be able to be accessed
  • When a block device is detached from an instance, it is unmounted by the operating system and you can no longer access the storage device.
  • Additional Instance store volumes can be attached only when the instance is launched while EBS volumes can be attached to an running instance.
  • View the block device mapping for an instance, only the EBS volumes can be seen, not the instance store volumes.Instance metadata can be used to query the complete block device mapping.

Public Data Sets

  • Amazon Web Services provides a repository of public data sets that can be seamlessly integrated into AWS cloud-based applications.
  • Amazon stores the data sets at no charge to the community and, as with all AWS services, you pay only for the compute and storage you use for your own applications.

Sample Exam Questions

  • Questions are collected from Internet and the answers are marked as per my knowledge and understanding (which might differ with yours).
  • AWS services are updated everyday and both the answers and questions might be outdated soon, so research accordingly.
  • AWS exam questions are not updated to keep up the pace with AWS updates, so even if the underlying feature has changed the question might not be updated
  • Open to further feedback, discussion and correction.
  1. When you view the block device mapping for your instance, you can see only the EBS volumes, not the instance store volumes.
    1. Depends on the instance type
    2. FALSE
    3. Depends on whether you use API call
    4. TRUE
  1. Amazon EC2 provides a repository of public data sets that can be seamlessly integrated into AWS cloud-based applications. What is the monthly charge for using the public data sets?
    1. A 1 time charge of 10$ for all the datasets.
    2. 1$ per dataset per month
    3. 10$ per month for all the datasets
    4. There is no charge for using the public data sets
  1. How many types of block devices does Amazon EC2 support?
    1. 2
    2. 4
    3. 3
    4. 1

References

AWS Elastic Block Store Storage – EBS

EC2 Elastic Block Storage – EBS

  • Elastic Block Storage – EBS provides highly available, reliable, durable, block-level storage volumes that can be attached to a running instance
  • EBS as a primary storage device is recommended for data that requires frequent and granular updates for e.g. running a database or filesystems
  • An EBS volume behaves like a raw, unformatted, external block device that can be attached to a single EC2 instance at a time
  • EBS volume persists independently from the running life of an instance.
  • An EBS volume is Zonal and can be attached to any instance within the same Availability Zone and can be used like any other physical hard drive.
  • EBS volumes are particularly well-suited for use as the primary storage for file systems, databases, or for any applications that require fine granular updates and access to raw, unformatted, block-level storage.

EBS Features

  • EBS volumes are created in a specific AZ, and can then be attached to any instances in that same AZ. To make a volume available outside of the AZ, create a snapshot and restore that snapshot to a new volume anywhere in that region.
  • EBS volumes can be backed up by creating a snapshot of the volume, which is stored in S3.  EBS volumes can be created from a snapshot can be attached to another instance within the same region.
  • Snapshots can also be copied to other regions and then restored to new volumes, making it easier to leverage multiple AWS regions for geographical expansion, data center migration, and disaster recovery.
  • EBS volumes allow encryption using the EBS encryption feature. All data stored at rest, disk I/O, and snapshots created from the volume are encrypted.
  • Encryption occurs on the EC2 instance, providing encryption of data-in-transit from EC2 to the EBS volume.
  • You can dynamically increase size, modify the provisioned IOPS capacity, and change volume type on live production volumes.
  • General Purpose (SSD) volumes support up to 10,000 16000 IOPS and 160 250 MB/s of throughput and Provisioned IOPS (SSD) volumes support up to 20,000 64000 IOPS and 320 1000 MB/s of throughput.
  • EBS Magnetic volumes can be created from 1 GiB to 1 TiB in size; EBS General Purpose (SSD) and Provisioned IOPS (SSD) volumes can be created up to 16 TiB in size.

EBS Benefits

  • Data Availability
    • EBS volume is automatically replicated in an Availability Zone to prevent data loss due to failure of any single hardware component.
  • Data Persistence
    • persists independently of the running life of an EC2 instance
    • persists when an instance is stopped and started or rebooted
    • Root EBS volume is deleted, by default, on Instance termination but the behavior can be changed using the DeleteOnTermination flag
    • All attached volumes persist, by default, on instance termination
  • Data Encryption
    • can be encrypted by the EBS encryption feature
    • EBS encryption uses 256-bit Advanced Encryption Standard algorithms (AES-256) and an Amazon-managed key infrastructure.
    • Encryption occurs on the server that hosts the EC2 instance, providing encryption of data-in-transit from the EC2 instance to EBS storage
    • Snapshots of encrypted EBS volumes are automatically encrypted.
  • Snapshots
    • EBS provides the ability to create snapshots (backups) of any EBS volume and write a copy of the data in the volume to Amazon S3, where it is stored redundantly in multiple Availability Zones
    • Snapshots can be used to create new volumes, increase the size of the volumes or replicate data across Availability Zones or regions
    • Snapshots are incremental backups and store only the data that was changed from the time the last snapshot was taken.
    • Snapshots size can probably be smaller than the volume size as the data is compressed before being saved to S3
    • Even though snapshots are saved incrementally, the snapshot deletion process is designed so that you need to retain only the most recent snapshot in order to restore the volume.

EBS Volume Types

Refer blog post @ EBS Volume Types

EBS Volume

EBS Volume Creation

  • EBS volume can be created either
    • Creating New volumes
      • Completely new from console or command line tools and can then be attached to an EC2 instance in the same Availability Zone
    • Restore volume from Snapshots
      • EBS volumes can also be restored from previously created snapshots
      • New volumes created from existing EBS snapshots load lazily in the background.
      • There is no need to wait for all of the data to transfer from S3 to the EBS volume before the attached instance can start accessing the volume and all its data.
      • If the instance accesses the data that hasn’t yet been loaded, the volume immediately downloads the requested data from S3, and continues loading the rest of the data in the background.
      • EBS volumes restored from encrypted snapshots are encrypted, by default
    • EBS volumes can be created and attached to a running EC2 instance by specifying a block device mapping

EBS Volume Detachment

  • EBS volumes can be detached from an instance explicitly or by terminating the instance
  • EBS root volumes can be detached by stopping the instance
  • EBS data volumes, attached to a running instance, can be detached by unmounting the volume from the instance first.
  • If the volume is detached without being unmounted, it might result in the volume being stuck in a busy state and could possibly damage the file system or the data it contains
  • EBS volume can be force detached from an instance, using the Force Detach option, but it might lead to data loss or a corrupted file system as the instance does not get an opportunity to flush file system caches or file system metadata
  • Charges are still incurred for the volume after its detachment

EBS Volume Deletion

  • EBS volume deletion would wipe out its data and the volume can’t be attached to any instance. However, it can be backed up before deletion using EBS snapshots

EBS Volume Resize

  • EBS Elastic Volumes can be modified to increase the volume size, change the volume type, or adjust the performance of your EBS volumes.
  • If the instance supports Elastic Volumes, changes can be performed without detaching the volume or restarting the instance.

EBS Volume Snapshots

Refer blog post @ EBS Snapshot

EBS Encryption

  • EBS volumes can be created and attached to a supported instance type and supports the following types of data
    • Data at rest
    • All disk I/O i.e All data moving between the volume and the instance
    • All snapshots created from the volume
    • All volumes created from those snapshots
  • Encryption occurs on the servers that host EC2 instances, providing encryption of data-in-transit from EC2 instances to EBS storage.
  • EBS encryption is supported with all EBS volume types (gp2, io1, st1, and sc1), and has the same IOPS performance on encrypted volumes as with unencrypted volumes, with a minimal effect on latency
  • EBS encryption is only available on select instance types
  • Snapshots of encrypted volumes and volumes created from encrypted snapshots are automatically encrypted using the same volume encryption key
  • EBS encryption uses AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) customer master keys (CMK) when creating encrypted volumes and any snapshots created from the encrypted volumes.
  • EBS volumes can be encrypted using either
    • a default CMK is created for you automatically.
    • a CMK that you created separately using AWS KMS, giving you more flexibility, including the ability to create, rotate, disable, define access controls, and audit the encryption keys used to protect your data.
  • Public or shared snapshots of encrypted volumes are not supported, because other accounts would be able to decrypt your data and needs to be migrated to an unencrypted status before sharing.
  • Existing unencrypted volumes cannot be encrypted directly, but can be migrated by
    • Option 1
      • create an unencrypted snapshot from the volume
      • create an encrypted copy of an unencrypted snapshot
      • create an encrypted volume from the encrypted snapshot
    • Option 2
      • create an unencrypted snapshot from the volume
      • create an encrypted volume from an unencrypted snapshot
  • Encrypted snapshot can be created from an unencrypted snapshot by creating an encrypted copy of the unencrypted snapshot
  • Unencrypted volume cannot be created from an encrypted volume directly but needs to be migrated

EBS Multi-Attach

  • EBS Multi-Attach enables attaching a single Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1 or io2) volume to multiple instances that are in the same AZ.
  • Multiple Multi-Attach enabled volumes can be attached to an instance or set of instances.
  • Each instance to which the volume is attached has full read and write permission to the shared volume.
  • Multi-Attach helps achieve higher application availability in clustered Linux applications that manage concurrent write operations.
  • Multi-Attach enabled volumes can be attached to up to 16 Linux instances built on the Nitro System that are in the same AZ.
  • Multi-Attach enabled volume can be attached to Windows instances, but the operating system does not recognize the data on the volume that is shared between the instances, which can result in data inconsistency.
  • Multi-Attach is supported exclusively on Provisioned IOPS SSD volumes.
  • Multi-Attach enabled volumes can’t be created as boot volumes.
  • Multi-Attach enabled volumes can be attached to one block device mapping per instance.
  • Multi-Attach can’t be enabled during instance launch using either the EC2 console or RunInstances API.
  • The multi-Attach option is disabled by default.
  • Multi-Attach enabled volumes are deleted on instance termination if the last attached instance is terminated and if that instance is configured to delete the volume on termination

EBS Performance

Refer blog Post @ EBS Performance

EBS vs Instance Store

Refer blog post @ EBS vs Instance Store

AWS Certification Exam Practice Questions

  • Questions are collected from Internet and the answers are marked as per my knowledge and understanding (which might differ with yours).
  • AWS services are updated everyday and both the answers and questions might be outdated soon, so research accordingly.
  • AWS exam questions are not updated to keep up the pace with AWS updates, so even if the underlying feature has changed the question might not be updated
  • Open to further feedback, discussion and correction.
  1. _____ is a durable, block-level storage volume that you can attach to a single, running Amazon EC2 instance.
    1. Amazon S3
    2. Amazon EBS
    3. None of these
    4. All of these
  2. Which Amazon storage do you think is the best for my database-style applications that frequently encounter many random reads and writes across the dataset?
    1. None of these.
    2. Amazon Instance Storage
    3. Any of these
    4. Amazon EBS
  3. What does Amazon EBS stand for?
    1. Elastic Block Storage
    2. Elastic Business Server
    3. Elastic Blade Server
    4. Elastic Block Store
  4. Which Amazon Storage behaves like raw, unformatted, external block devices that you can attach to your instances?
    1. None of these.
    2. Amazon Instance Storage
    3. Amazon EBS
    4. All of these
  5. A user has created numerous EBS volumes. What is the general limit for each AWS account for the maximum number of EBS volumes that can be created?
    1. 10000
    2. 5000
    3. 100
    4. 1000
  6. Select the correct set of steps for exposing the snapshot only to specific AWS accounts
    1. Select Public for all the accounts and check mark those accounts with whom you want to expose the snapshots and click save.
    2. Select Private and enter the IDs of those AWS accounts, and click Save.
    3. Select Public, enter the IDs of those AWS accounts, and click Save.
    4. Select Public, mark the IDs of those AWS accounts as private, and click Save.
  7. If an Amazon EBS volume is the root device of an instance, can I detach it without stopping the instance?
    1. Yes but only if Windows instance
    2. No
    3. Yes
    4. Yes but only if a Linux instance
  8. Can we attach an EBS volume to more than one EC2 instance at the same time?
    1. Yes
    2. No
    3. Only EC2-optimized EBS volumes.
    4. Only in read mode.
  9. Do the Amazon EBS volumes persist independently from the running life of an Amazon EC2 instance?
    1. Only if instructed to when created
    2. Yes
    3. No
  10. Can I delete a snapshot of the root device of an EBS volume used by a registered AMI?
    1. Only via API
    2. Only via Console
    3. Yes
    4. No
  11. By default, EBS volumes that are created and attached to an instance at launch are deleted when that instance is terminated. You can modify this behavior by changing the value of the flag_____ to false when you launch the instance
    1. DeleteOnTermination
    2. RemoveOnDeletion
    3. RemoveOnTermination
    4. TerminateOnDeletion
  12. Your company policies require encryption of sensitive data at rest. You are considering the possible options for protecting data while storing it at rest on an EBS data volume, attached to an EC2 instance. Which of these options would allow you to encrypt your data at rest? (Choose 3 answers)
    1. Implement third party volume encryption tools
    2. Do nothing as EBS volumes are encrypted by default
    3. Encrypt data inside your applications before storing it on EBS
    4. Encrypt data using native data encryption drivers at the file system level
    5. Implement SSL/TLS for all services running on the server
  13. Which of the following are true regarding encrypted Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) volumes? Choose 2 answers
    1. Supported on all Amazon EBS volume types
    2. Snapshots are automatically encrypted
    3. Available to all instance types
    4. Existing volumes can be encrypted
    5. Shared volumes can be encrypted
  14. How can you secure data at rest on an EBS volume?
    1. Encrypt the volume using the S3 server-side encryption service
    2. Attach the volume to an instance using EC2’s SSL interface.
    3. Create an IAM policy that restricts read and write access to the volume.
    4. Write the data randomly instead of sequentially.
    5. Use an encrypted file system on top of the EBS volume
  15. A user has deployed an application on an EBS backed EC2 instance. For a better performance of application, it requires dedicated EC2 to EBS traffic. How can the user achieve this?
    1. Launch the EC2 instance as EBS dedicated with PIOPS EBS
    2. Launch the EC2 instance as EBS enhanced with PIOPS EBS
    3. Launch the EC2 instance as EBS dedicated with PIOPS EBS
    4. Launch the EC2 instance as EBS optimized with PIOPS EBS
  16. A user is trying to launch an EBS backed EC2 instance under free usage. The user wants to achieve encryption of the EBS volume. How can the user encrypt the data at rest?
    1. Use AWS EBS encryption to encrypt the data at rest (Encryption is allowed on micro instances)
    2. User cannot use EBS encryption and has to encrypt the data manually or using a third party tool (Encryption was not allowed on micro instances before)
    3. The user has to select the encryption enabled flag while launching the EC2 instance
    4. Encryption of volume is not available as a part of the free usage tier
  17. A user is planning to schedule a backup for an EBS volume. The user wants security of the snapshot data. How can the user achieve data encryption with a snapshot?
    1. Use encrypted EBS volumes so that the snapshot will be encrypted by AWS
    2. While creating a snapshot select the snapshot with encryption
    3. By default the snapshot is encrypted by AWS
    4. Enable server side encryption for the snapshot using S3
  18. A user has launched an EBS backed EC2 instance. The user has rebooted the instance. Which of the below mentioned statements is not true with respect to the reboot action?
    1. The private and public address remains the same
    2. The Elastic IP remains associated with the instance
    3. The volume is preserved
    4. The instance runs on a new host computer
  19. A user has launched an EBS backed EC2 instance. What will be the difference while performing the restart or stop/start options on that instance?
    1. For restart it does not charge for an extra hour, while every stop/start it will be charged as a separate hour
    2. Every restart is charged by AWS as a separate hour, while multiple start/stop actions during a single hour will be counted as a single hour
    3. For every restart or start/stop it will be charged as a separate hour
    4. For restart it charges extra only once, while for every stop/start it will be charged as a separate hour
  20. A user has launched an EBS backed instance. The user started the instance at 9 AM in the morning. Between 9 AM to 10 AM, the user is testing some script. Thus, he stopped the instance twice and restarted it. In the same hour the user rebooted the instance once. For how many instance hours will AWS charge the user?
    1. 3 hours
    2. 4 hours
    3. 2 hours
    4. 1 hour
  21. You are running a database on an EC2 instance, with the data stored on Elastic Block Store (EBS) for persistence At times throughout the day, you are seeing large variance in the response times of the database queries Looking into the instance with the isolate command you see a lot of wait time on the disk volume that the database’s data is stored on. What two ways can you improve the performance of the database’s storage while maintaining the current persistence of the data? Choose 2 answers
    1. Move to an SSD backed instance
    2. Move the database to an EBS-Optimized Instance
    3. Use Provisioned IOPs EBS
    4. Use the ephemeral storage on an m2.4xLarge Instance Instead
  22. An organization wants to move to Cloud. They are looking for a secure encrypted database storage option. Which of the below mentioned AWS functionalities helps them to achieve this?
    1. AWS MFA with EBS
    2. AWS EBS encryption
    3. Multi-tier encryption with Redshift
    4. AWS S3 server-side storage
  23. A user has stored data on an encrypted EBS volume. The user wants to share the data with his friend’s AWS account. How can user achieve this?
    1. Create an AMI from the volume and share the AMI
    2. Copy the data to an unencrypted volume and then share
    3. Take a snapshot and share the snapshot with a friend
    4. If both the accounts are using the same encryption key then the user can share the volume directly
  24. A user is using an EBS backed instance. Which of the below mentioned statements is true?
    1. The user will be charged for volume and instance only when the instance is running
    2. The user will be charged for the volume even if the instance is stopped
    3. The user will be charged only for the instance running cost
    4. The user will not be charged for the volume if the instance is stopped
  25. A user is planning to use EBS for his DB requirement. The user already has an EC2 instance running in the VPC private subnet. How can the user attach the EBS volume to a running instance?
    1. The user must create EBS within the same VPC and then attach it to a running instance.
    2. The user can create EBS in the same zone as the subnet of instance and attach that EBS to instance. (Should be in the same AZ)
    3. It is not possible to attach an EBS to an instance running in VPC until the instance is stopped.
    4. The user can specify the same subnet while creating EBS and then attach it to a running instance.
  26. A user is creating an EBS volume. He asks for your advice. Which advice mentioned below should you not give to the user for creating an EBS volume?
    1. Take the snapshot of the volume when the instance is stopped
    2. Stripe multiple volumes attached to the same instance
    3. Create an AMI from the attached volume (AMI is created from the snapshot)
    4. Attach multiple volumes to the same instance
  27. An EC2 instance has one additional EBS volume attached to it. How can a user attach the same volume to another running instance in the same AZ?
    1. Terminate the first instance and only then attach to the new instance
    2. Attach the volume as read only to the second instance
    3. Detach the volume first and attach to new instance
    4. No need to detach. Just select the volume and attach it to the new instance, it will take care of mapping internally
  28. What is the scope of an EBS volume?
    1. VPC
    2. Region
    3. Placement Group
    4. Availability Zone

AWS EC2 EBS Monitoring

EBS Monitoring

Amazon Web Services (AWS) support EBS monitoring by automatically providing data, such as Amazon CloudWatch metrics and volume status checks to help monitor EBS volumes

CloudWatch Monitoring

  • CloudWatch metrics are statistical data that you can use to view, analyze, and set alarms on the operational behavior of the EBS volumes
  • CloudWatch provides the below by default
    • Basic – Data, in 5-minute periods at no charge, which includes data from the root devices volumes for EBS backed instances
    • Detailed – Provisioned IOPS (SSD) volumes send one-minute metrics
  • EBS Metrics
    • VolumeReadBytes & VolumeWriteBytes
      • Provides information on the I/O operations in a specified period of time, in bytes
    • VolumeReadOps & VolumeWriteOps
      • Total number (count) of I/O operations in a specified period of time
    • VolumeTotalReadTime & VolumeTotalWriteTime
      • Total number of seconds spent by all operations that completed in a specified period of time
    • VolumeIdleTime
      • Total number of seconds, in a specific period, when the volume was idle (no read and write operations)
    • VolumeQueueLength
      • Number of read and write operations, in a specific period, waiting to be completed
    • VolumeThroughputPercentage (Provisioned IOPS (SSD) volumes only)
      • Percentage of I/O operations per second (IOPS) delivered of the total IOPS provisioned
    • VolumeConsumedReadWriteOps (Provisioned IOPS (SSD) volumes only)
      • Total amount of read and write operations (normalized to 256K capacity units) consumed in a specified period of time

Volume Status Checks Monitoring

EC2 EBS Volume Status Check Monitoring

  • Volume status checks are automated tests that run every 5 minutes and return a pass or fail status.
  • Volume check status
    • Ok – all the status checks passed
    • Impaired – if the status checks failed
    • Insufficient-Data – checks are still in progress
    • Warning – the I/O performance of the volume is below expectations
  • When Amazon EBS determines the volume’s data is potentially inconsistent, it disables the I/O to the EBS volume from the attached EC2 instance to prevent any data corruption. This leads to the status check to fail and the volume status to be impaired. Amazon waits for the I/O to be enabled, giving you an opportunity to perform consistency checks
  • If the auto disabling of I/O is not needed, it can be overridden by enabling the Auto-Enabled IO flag, which would make the EBS volume auto available immediately after impaired status
  • Events would be fire for notification whenever the I/O for an EBS volume is disabled
  • I/O performance status checks, applicable only for Provisioned IOPS (SSD) volumes, compares actual volume performance with the expected volume performance and alerts if performing below expectations. This status check is performed every 1 minutes, however is collected by CloudWatch every 5 mins.
  • While initializing Provisioned IOPS (SSD) volumes that were restored from snapshots, the performance of the volume may drop below 50 percent of its expected level, which causes the volume to display a warning state in the I/O Performance status check. This is expected and can be ignored.

EC2 EBS Volume Status

Volume Events Monitoring

  • Amazon EBS generates events for volume status checks
  • Each event includes a start time that indicates the time at which the event occurred, and a duration that indicates how long I/O for the volume was disabled
  • Events description can be Awaiting Action (to enabled I/O), IO enabled, IO Auto-Enabled, or whether the status check resulted in Normal, Degraded, Severely Degraded or stalled status

AWS Certification Exam Practice Questions

  • Questions are collected from Internet and the answers are marked as per my knowledge and understanding (which might differ with yours).
  • AWS services are updated everyday and both the answers and questions might be outdated soon, so research accordingly.
  • AWS exam questions are not updated to keep up the pace with AWS updates, so even if the underlying feature has changed the question might not be updated
  • Open to further feedback, discussion and correction.
  1. A user has configured CloudWatch monitoring on an EBS backed EC2 instance. If the user has not attached any additional device, which of the below mentioned metrics will always show a 0 value?
    1. DiskReadBytes
    2. NetworkIn
    3. NetworkOut
    4. CPUUtilization
  2. What does it mean if you have zero IOPS and a non-empty I/O queue for all EBS volumes attached to a running EC2 instance?
    1. The I/O queue is buffer flushing.
    2. Your EBS disk head(s) is/are seeking magnetic stripes.
    3. The EBS volume is unavailable. (EBS volumes are unavailable when all of the attached volumes perform zero read write IO, with pending IO in the queue Refer link)
    4. You need to re-mount the EBS volume in the OS.
  3. While performing the volume status checks, if the status is insufficient-data, what does it mean?
    1. checks may still be in progress on the volume
    2. check has passed
    3. check has failed

References

AWS EBS Volume Types – Certification

AWS EBS Volume Types

  • AWS provides the following EBS volume types, which differ in performance characteristics and price which can be tailored for storage performance and cost to the needs of the applications.
  • Solid state drives (SSD-backed) volumes optimized for transactional workloads involving frequent read/write operations with small I/O size, where the dominant performance attribute is IOPS
    • General Purpose SSD (gp2/gp3)
    • Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1/io2)
  • Hard disk drives (HDD-backed) volumes optimized for large streaming workloads where throughput (measured in MiB/s) is a better performance measure than IOPS
    • Throughput Optimized HDD (st1)
    • Cold HDD (sc1)
    • Magnetic Volumes (standard) (Previous Generation)

EBS Volume Types (New Generation)

EBS Volume Types

Solid state drives (SSD-backed) volumes

Solid state drives (SSD-backed) volumes

General Purpose SSD Volumes (gp2/gp3)

  • General Purpose SSD volumes offer cost-effective storage that is ideal for a broad range of workloads.
  • General Purpose SSD volumes deliver single-digit millisecond latencies
  • General Purpose SSD volumes can range in size from 1 GiB to 16 TiB.
  • General Purpose SSD (gp2) volumes
    • has a maximum throughput of 160 MiB/s (at 214 GiB and larger).
    • provides a baseline performance of 3 IOPS/GiB
    • provides the ability to burst to 3,000 IOPS for extended periods of time for volume size less then 1 TiB and up to a maximum of 16,000 IOPS (at 5,334 GiB).
    • If the volume performance is frequently limited to the baseline level (due to an empty I/O credit balance),
      • consider using a larger General Purpose SSD volume (with a higher baseline performance level) or
      • switching to a Provisioned IOPS SSD volume for workloads that require sustained IOPS performance greater than 16,000 IOPS.
  • General Purpose SSD (gp3) volumes
    • deliver a consistent baseline rate of 3,000 IOPS and 125 MiB/s, included with the price of storage.
    • additional IOPS (up to 16,000) and throughput (up to 1,000 MiB/s) can be provisioned for an additional cost.
    • the maximum ratio of provisioned IOPS to provisioned volume size is 500 IOPS per GiB
    • the maximum ratio of provisioned throughput to provisioned IOPS is .25 MiB/s per IOPS.

I/O Credits and Burst Performance

  • I/O credits represent the available bandwidth that the General Purpose SSD volume can use to burst large amounts of I/O when more than the baseline performance is needed.
  • General Purpose SSD (gp2) volume performance is governed by volume size, which dictates the baseline performance level of the volume for e.g. 100 GiB volume has a 300 IOPS @ 3 IOPS/GiB
  • General Purpose SSD volume size also determines how quickly it accumulates I/O credits for e.g. 100 GiB with a performance of 300 IOPS can accumulate 180K IOPS/10 mins (300 * 60 * 10).
  • Larger volumes have higher baseline performance levels and accumulate I/O credits faster for e.g. 1 TiB has a baseline performance of 3000 IOPS
  • More credits the volume has for I/O, the more time it can burst beyond its baseline performance level and the better it performs when more performance is needed for e.g. 300 GiB volume with 180K I/O credit can burst @ 3000 IOPS for 1 minute (180K/3000)
  • Each volume receives an initial I/O credit balance of 5,400,000 I/O credits, which is enough to sustain the maximum burst performance of 3,000 IOPS for 30 minutes.
  • Initial credit balance is designed to provide a fast initial boot cycle for boot volumes and a good bootstrapping experience for other applications.
  • Each volume can accumulate I/O credits over a period of time which can be to burst to the required performance level, up to a max of 3,000 IOPS
  • Unused I/O credit cannot go beyond 54,00,000 I/O credits.

IOPS vs Volume size

  • Volumes till 1 TiB can burst up to 3000 IOPS over an above its baseline performance
  • Volumes larger than 1 TiB have a baseline performance that is already equal or greater than the maximum burst performance, and their I/O credit balance never depletes.
  • Baseline performance cannot be beyond 10000 IOPS for General Purpose SSD volumes and this limit is reached @ 3333 GiB

IOPS vs Volume Size

Baseline Performance

  • Formula – 3 IOPS i.e. GiB * 3
  • Calculation example
    • 1 GiB volume size =  3 IOPS (1 * 3 IOPS)
    • 250 GiB volume size = 750 IOPS (250* 3 IOPS)

Maximum burst duration @ 3000 IOPS

  • How much time can 5400000 IO credit be sustained @ the burst performance of 3000 IOPS. Subtract the baseline performance from 3000 IOPS which would be contributed by the volume size
  • Formula – 5400000/(3000 – Baseline performance)
  • Calculation example
    • 1 GiB volume size @ 3000 IOPS with 5400000 the burst performance can be maintained for 5400000/(3000-3) = 1802 secs
    • 250 GiB volume size @ 3000 IOPS with 5400000 the burst performance can be maintained for 5400000/(3000-3*250) = 2400 secs

Time to fill the 5400000 I/O credit balance

  • Formula – 5400000/Baseline performance
  • Calculation
    • 1 GiB volume size @ 3 IOPS would require 5400000/3 = 1800000 secs
    • 250 GiB volume size @ 750 IOPS would require 5400000/750 = 7200 secs

Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1/io2) Volumes

  • are designed to meet the needs of I/O intensive workloads, particularly database workloads, that are sensitive to storage performance and consistency in random access I/O throughput.
  • IOPS rate can be specified when the volume is created, and EBS delivers within 10 percent of the provisioned IOPS performance 99.9 percent of the time over a given year.
  • can range in size from 4 GiB to 16 TiB
  • have a throughput limit range of 256 KiB for each IOPS provisioned, up to a maximum of 320 500 MiB/s (at 32000 IOPS)
  • can be provision up to 20,000 32,000 64,000 IOPS per volume.
  • Ratio of IOPS provisioned to the volume size requested can be maximum of 30 50; for e.g., a volume with 5,000 IOPS must be at least 100 GiB.
  • can be striped together in a RAID configuration for larger size and greater performance over 20000 IOPS

Hard disk drives (HDD-backed) volumes

Hard disk drives (HDD-backed) volumes

Throughput Optimized HDD (st1) Volumes

  • provide low-cost magnetic storage that defines performance in terms of throughput rather than IOPS.
  • is a good fit for large, sequential workloads such as EMR, ETL, data warehouses, and log processing
  • do not support Bootable sc1 volumes
  • are designed to support frequently accessed data
  • uses a burst-bucket model for performance similar to gp2. Volume size determines the baseline throughput of the volume, which is the rate at which the volume accumulates throughput credits. Volume size also determines the burst throughput of your volume, which is the rate at which you can spend credits when they are available.

Cold HDD (sc1) Volumes

  • provide low-cost magnetic storage that defines performance in terms of throughput rather than IOPS.
  • With a lower throughput limit than st1, sc1 is a good fit ideal for large, sequential cold-data workloads.
  • ideal for infrequent access to data and are looking to save costs, sc1 provides inexpensive block storage
  • do not support Bootable sc1 volumes
  • though are similar to Throughput Optimized HDD (st1) volumes, are designed to support infrequently accessed data.
  • uses a burst-bucket model for performance similar to gp2. Volume size determines the baseline throughput of the volume, which is the rate at which the volume accumulates throughput credits. Volume size also determines the burst throughput of your volume, which is the rate at which you can spend credits when they are available.

Magnetic Volumes (standard)

Magnetic volumes provide the lowest cost per gigabyte of all EBS volume types. Magnetic volumes are backed by magnetic drives and are ideal for workloads performing sequential reads, workloads where data is accessed infrequently, and scenarios where the lowest storage cost is important.

  • Magnetic volumes can range in size from1 GiB to 1 TiB
  • These volumes deliver approximately 100 IOPS on average, with burst capability of up to hundreds of IOPS
  • Magnetic volumes can be striped together in a RAID configuration for larger size and greater performance.

EBS Volume Types (Previous Generation – Reference Only)

EBS Volume Types Comparision

AWS Certification Exam Practice Questions

  • Questions are collected from Internet and the answers are marked as per my knowledge and understanding (which might differ with yours).
  • AWS services are updated everyday and both the answers and questions might be outdated soon, so research accordingly.
  • AWS exam questions are not updated to keep up the pace with AWS updates, so even if the underlying feature has changed the question might not be updated
  • Open to further feedback, discussion and correction.
  1. You are designing an enterprise data storage system. Your data management software system requires mountable disks and a real filesystem, so you cannot use S3 for storage. You need persistence, so you will be using AWS EBS Volumes for your system. The system needs as low-cost storage as possible, and access is not frequent or high throughput, and is mostly sequential reads. Which is the most appropriate EBS Volume Type for this scenario?
    1. gp1
    2. io1
    3. standard (Standard or Magnetic volumes are suited for cold workloads where data is infrequently accessed, or scenarios where the lowest storage cost is important)
    4. gp2
  2. Which EBS volume type is best for high performance NoSQL cluster deployments?
    1. io1 (io1 volumes, or Provisioned IOPS (PIOPS) SSDs, are best for: Critical business applications that require sustained IOPS performance, or more than 10,000 IOPS or 160 MiB/s of throughput per volume, like large database workloads, such as MongoDB.)
    2. gp1
    3. standard
    4. gp2
  3. Provisioned IOPS Costs: you are charged for the IOPS and storage whether or not you use them in a given month.
    1. FALSE
    2. TRUE
  4. A user is trying to create a PIOPS EBS volume with 8 GB size and 450 IOPS. Will AWS create the volume?
    1. Yes, since the ratio between EBS and IOPS is less than 50
    2. No, since the PIOPS and EBS size ratio is less than 50
    3. No, the EBS size is less than 10 GB
    4. Yes, since PIOPS is higher than 100
  5. A user has provisioned 2000 IOPS to the EBS volume. The application hosted on that EBS is experiencing fewer IOPS than provisioned. Which of the below mentioned options does not affect the IOPS of the volume?
    1. The application does not have enough IO for the volume
    2. Instance is EBS optimized
    3. The EC2 instance has 10 Gigabit Network connectivity
    4. Volume size is too large
  6. A user is trying to create a PIOPS EBS volume with 6000 IOPS and 100 GB size. AWS does not allow the user to create this volume. What is the possible root cause for this?
    1. The ratio between IOPS and the EBS volume is higher than 50
    2. The maximum IOPS supported by EBS is 3000
    3. The ratio between IOPS and the EBS volume is lower than 100
    4. PIOPS is supported for EBS higher than 500 GB size

References