Google Cloud VPC Peering

Google Cloud VPC Peering

  • Google Cloud VPC Network Peering allows internal IP address or private connectivity across two VPC networks regardless of whether they belong to the same project or the same organization.
  • VPC Network Peering enables VPC networks connection, so that workloads in different VPC networks can communicate internally.
  • Traffic stays within Google’s network and doesn’t traverse public internet
  • VPC Network Peering provides following advantages over using external IP addresses or VPNs to connect networks, including:
    • Network Latency – connectivity uses only internal addresses and provides lower latency than connectivity that uses external addresses
    • Network Security – service owners do not need to have their services exposed to the public Internet and deal with its associated risks.
    • Network Cost – GCP charges egress bandwidth or outbound traffic for networks using external IPs to communicate even if the traffic is within the same zone. However, for peered networks as they use internal IPs to communicate and save on those egress costs.
  • VPC Network Peering is useful in these environments:
    • SaaS (Software-as-a-Service) ecosystems in Google Cloud, which can be made available privately across different VPC networks within and across organizations.
    • Organizations that have several network administrative domains that need to communicate using internal IP addresses.

VPC Peering Properties

  • VPC Network Peering works with Compute Engine, GKE, and App Engine flexible environment.
  • Peered VPC networks remain administratively separate. Routes, firewalls, VPNs, and other traffic management tools are administered and applied separately in each of the VPC networks.
  • Each side of a peering association is set up independently. Peering will be active only when the configuration from both sides matches. Either side can choose to delete the peering association at any time.
  • VPC peers always exchange subnet routes that don’t use privately used public IP addresses. Networks must explicitly export privately used public IP subnet routes for other networks to use them and must explicitly import privately used public IP subnet routes to receive them from other networks
  • Subnet and static routes are global. Dynamic routes can be regional or global, depending on the VPC network’s dynamic routing mode.
  • VPC network can peer with multiple VPC networks (limit of 25 currently)
  • IAM permissions for creating and deleting VPC Network Peering are included as part of the Compute Network Admin role.
  • Peering traffic (traffic flowing between peered networks) has the same latency, throughput, and availability as private traffic in the same network.
  • Billing policy for peering traffic is the same as the billing policy for private traffic in the same network.
  • Peering is allowed with Shared VPC
  • An organization policy administrator can use an organization policy to constrain which VPC networks can peer with VPC networks in the organization. Peering connections to particular VPC networks or to VPC networks in a particular folder or organization can be denied. The constraint applies to new peering configurations and doesn’t affect existing connections. An existing peering connection can continue to work even if a new policy denies new connections.

VPC Peering Restrictions

  • A subnet CIDR range in one peered VPC network cannot overlap with a static route in another peered network. This rule covers both subnet routes and static routes

GCP VPC Peering - Overlapping Subnet IP ranges between two peers

  • A dynamic route can overlap with a subnet route in a peer network. For dynamic routes, the destination ranges that overlap with a subnet route from the peer network are silently dropped. Google Cloud uses the subnet route
  • Only VPC networks are supported for VPC Network Peering. Peering is NOT supported for legacy networks.
  • Subnet route exchange can’t be disabled or subnet routes that can be exchanged cannot be selected. After peering is established, all resources within subnet IP addresses are accessible across directly peered networks.
  • VPC Network Peering doesn’t provide granular route controls to filter out which subnet CIDR ranges are reachable across peered networks. It needs to be done using firewall rules
  • Transitive peering is NOT supported.
  • Tags or service account from one peered network in the other peered network CANNOT be used.
  • Compute Engine internal DNS names created in a network are NOT accessible to peered networks. Use the IP address instead.
  • By default, VPC Network Peering with GKE is supported when used with IP aliases. If you don’t use IP aliases, custom routes can be exported so that GKE containers are reachable from peered networks.

GCP Certification Exam Practice Questions

  • Questions are collected from Internet and the answers are marked as per my knowledge and understanding (which might differ with yours).
  • GCP services are updated everyday and both the answers and questions might be outdated soon, so research accordingly.
  • GCP exam questions are not updated to keep up the pace with GCP updates, so even if the underlying feature has changed the question might not be updated
  • Open to further feedback, discussion and correction.
  1. Your company is working with a partner to provide a solution for a customer. Both your company and the partner organization are
    using GCP. There are applications in the partner’s network that need access to some resources in your company’s VPC. There is
    no CIDR overlap between the VPCs.Which two solutions can you implement to achieve the desired results without compromising
    security?

    1. VPC peering
    2. Shared VPC
    3. Dedicated Interconnect
    4. Cloud NAT
  2. Your organization is deploying a single project for 3 separate departments. Two of these departments require network
    connectivity between each other, but the third department should remain in isolation. Your design should create separate network
    administrative domains between these departments. You want to minimize operational overhead. How should you design the
    topology?

    1. Create a Shared VPC Host Project and the respective Service Projects for each of the 3 separate departments.
    2. Create 3 separate VPCs, and use Cloud VPN to establish connectivity between the two appropriate VPCs.
    3. Create 3 separate VPCs, and use VPC peering to establish connectivity between the two appropriate VPCs.
    4. Create a single project, and deploy specific firewall rules. Use network tags to isolate access between the departments.

Reference

Google Cloud – VPC Peering

AWS Network Connectivity Options

VPC

More details @ Virtual Private Cloud

Internet Gateway

  • An Internet Gateway provides Internet connectivity to VPC
  • Internet gateway is a horizontally scaled, redundant, and highly available VPC component that allows communication between instances in your VPC and the internet.
  • Internet Gateway imposes no availability risks or bandwidth constraints on your network traffic.
  • An Internet gateway serves two purposes: to provide a target in the VPC route tables for internet-routable traffic, and to perform network address translation (NAT) for instances that have not been assigned public IPv4 addresses.
  • An internet gateway supports IPv4 and IPv6 traffic.

NAT Gateway

  • NAT Gateway enables instances in a private subnet to connect to the internet (for example, for software updates) or other AWS services, but prevent the internet from initiating connections with the instances.
  • A NAT gateway forwards traffic from the instances in the private subnet to the internet or other AWS services, and then sends the response back to the instances.
  • When traffic goes to the internet, the source IPv4 address is replaced with the NAT device’s address and similarly, when the response traffic goes to those instances, the NAT device translates the address back to those instances’ private IPv4 addresses.

Egress Only Internet Gateway

  • NAT devices are not supported for IPv6 traffic, use an Egress-only Internet gateway instead
  • Egress-only Internet gateway is a horizontally scaled, redundant, and highly available VPC component that allows outbound communication over IPv6 from instances in the VPC to the Internet, and prevents the Internet from initiating an IPv6 connection with your instances.

VPC Endpoints

  • VPC endpoint provides a private connection from VPC to supported AWS services and VPC endpoint services powered by PrivateLink without requiring an internet gateway, NAT device, VPN connection, or AWS Direct Connect connection.
  • Instances in the VPC do not require public IP addresses to communicate with resources in the service. Traffic between the VPC and the other service does not leave the Amazon network.
  • VPC Endpoints are virtual devices and are horizontally scaled, redundant, and highly available VPC components that allow communication between instances in the VPC and services without imposing availability risks or bandwidth constraints on the network traffic.
  • VPC Endpoints are of two types
    • Interface Endpoints – is an elastic network interface with a private IP address that serves as an entry point for traffic destined to supported services.
    • Gateway Endpoints – is a gateway that is a target for a specified route in your route table, used for traffic destined to a supported AWS service. Currently only Amazon S3 and DynamoDB.

More details @ VPC Endpoints

VPC Peering

  • VPC peering connection enables networking connection between two VPCs to route traffic between them using private IPv4 addresses or IPv6 addresses
  • VPC peering connections can be created between your own VPCs, or with a VPC in another AWS account
  • VPC peering connections can be created across regions, referred to as inter-region VPC peering connection
  • VPC peering uses existing underlying AWS infrastructure; it is neither a gateway nor a VPN connection, and does not rely on a separate piece of physical hardware.
  • VPC Peering does not have a single point of failure for communication or a bandwidth bottleneck.
  • VPC Peering connections have limitations
    • Cannot be used with Overlapping CIDR blocks
    • Does not provide Transitive peering
    • Doe not support Edge to Edge routing through Gateway or private connection

More details @ VPC Peering

VPN CloudHub

VPC CloudHub
  • AWS VPN CloudHub allows you to securely communicate from one site to another using AWS Managed VPN or Direct Connect
  • AWS VPN CloudHub operates on a simple hub-and-spoke model that can be used with or without a VPC
  • AWS VPN CloudHub can be used if you have multiple branch offices and existing internet connections and would like to implement a convenient, potentially low cost hub-and-spoke model for primary or backup connectivity between these remote offices.
  • AWS VPN CloudHub leverages VPC virtual private gateway with multiple gateways, each using unique BGP autonomous system numbers (ASNs).

Transit VPC

Transit VPC
  • A transit VPC is a common strategy for connecting multiple, geographically disperse VPCs and remote networks in order to create a global network transit center.
  • A transit VPC simplifies network management and minimizes the number of connections required to connect multiple VPCs and remote networks
  • Transit VPC can be used to support important use cases
    • Private Networking – You can build a private network that spans two or more AWS Regions.
    • Shared Connectivity – Multiple VPCs can share connections to data centers, partner networks, and other clouds.
    • Cross-Account AWS Usage – The VPCs and the AWS resources within them can reside in multiple AWS accounts.
  • Transit VPC design helps implement more complex routing rules, such as network address translation between overlapping network ranges, or to add additional network-level packet filtering or inspection

Transit Gateway (Virtual Routing and Forwarding)

  • Transit gateway enables you to attach VPCs (across accounts) and VPN connections in the same Region and route traffic between them
  • Transit gateways support dynamic and static routing between attached VPCs and VPN connections
  • Transit gateway removes the need for using full mesh VPC Peering and Transit VPC

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

VPC Managed VPN Connection
  • VPC provides the option of creating an IPsec VPN connection between remote customer networks and their VPC over the internet
  • AWS managed VPN endpoint includes automated multi–data center redundancy & failover built into the AWS side of the VPN connection
  • AWS managed VPN consists of two parts
    • Virtual Private Gateway (VPG) on AWS side
    • Customer Gateway (CGW) on the on-premises data center
  • AWS Managed VPN only provides Site-to-Site VPN connectivity. It does not provide Point-to-Site VPC connectivity for e.g. from Mobile
  • Virtual Private Gateway are Highly Available as it represents two distinct VPN endpoints, physically located in separate data centers to increase the availability of the VPN connection.
  • High Availability on the on-premises data center must be handled by creating additional Customer Gateway.
  • AWS Managed VPN connections are low cost, quick to setup and start with compared to Direct Connect. However, they are not reliable as they traverse through Internet.

More details @ Virtual Private Network

Software VPN

  • VPC offers the flexibility to fully manage both sides of the VPC connectivity by creating a VPN connection between your remote network and a software VPN appliance running in your VPC network.
  • Software VPNs help manage both ends of the VPN connection either for compliance purposes or for leveraging gateway devices that are not currently supported by Amazon VPC’s VPN solution.
  • Software VPNs allows you to handle Point-to-Site connectivity
  • Software VPNs, with the above design, introduces a single point of failure and needs to be handled.

Direct Connect

  • AWS Direct Connect helps establish a dedicated connection and a private connectivity from an on-premises network to VPC
  • Direct Connect can reduce network costs, increase bandwidth throughput, and provide a more consistent network experience than internet-based or VPN connections
  • Direct Connect uses industry-standard VLANs to access EC2 instances running within a VPC using private IP addresses
  • Direct Connect lets you establish
    • Dedicated Connection: A 1G or 10G physical Ethernet connection associated with a single customer through AWS.
    • Hosted Connection: A 1G or 10G physical Ethernet connection that an AWS Direct Connect Partner provisions on behalf of a customer.
  • Direct Connect provides following Virtual Interfaces
    • Private virtual interface – to access an VPC using private IP addresses.
    • Public virtual interface – to access all AWS public services using public IP addresses.
    • Transit virtual interface – to access one or more transit gateways associated with Direct Connect gateways.
  • Direct Connect connections are not redundant as each connection consists of a single dedicated connection between ports on your router and an Amazon router
  • Direct Connect High Availability can be configured using
    • Multiple Direct Connect connections
    • Back-up IPSec VPN connection

More details @ Direct Connect

LAGs

  • Direct Connect link aggregation group (LAG) is a logical interface that uses the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) to aggregate multiple connections at a single AWS Direct Connect endpoint, allowing you to treat them as a single, managed connection.
  • LAGs needs the following
    • All connections in the LAG must use the same bandwidth.
    • You can have a maximum of four connections in a LAG. Each connection in the LAG counts towards your overall connection limit for the Region.
    • All connections in the LAG must terminate at the same AWS Direct Connect endpoint.

Direct Connect Gateway

  • Direct Connect Gateway allows you to connect an AWS Direct Connect connection to one or more VPCs in your account that are located in the same or different regions
  • Direct Connect gateway can be created in any public region and accessed from all other public regions
  • Direct Connect gateway CANNOT be used to connect to a VPC in another account.
  • Alternatively, Direct connect locations can also access the public resources in any AWS Region using a public virtual interface.

Direct Connect with VPN

  • AWS Direct Connect plus VPN provides an IPsec-encrypted private connection that also reduces network costs, increases bandwidth throughput, and provides a more consistent network experience than internet-based VPN connections.

References

AWS Virtual Private Cloud – VPC – Certification

VPC Overview & Components

  • A virtual private cloud (VPC) is a virtual network dedicated to the AWS account. It is logically isolated from other virtual networks in the AWS cloud.
  • VPC allows the user to select IP address range, create subnets, and configure route tables, network gateways, and security settings.
  • VPC Sizing
    • VPC needs a set of IP addresses in the form of a Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) block for e.g, 10.0.0.0/16, which allows 2^16 (65536) IP address to be available 
    • Allowed CIDR block size is between
      • /28 netmask (minimum with 2^4 – 16 available IP address) and
      • /16 netmask (maximum with 2^16 – 65536 IP address)
    • CIDR block from private (non-publicly routable) IP address can be assigned
      • 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 (10/8 prefix)
      • 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 (172.16/12 prefix)
      • 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 (192.168/16 prefix)
    • It’s possible to specify a range of publicly routable IP addresses; however, direct access to the Internet is not currently supported from publicly routable CIDR blocks in a VPC
    • CIDR block once assigned to the VPC cannot be modified.  NOTE – You can now resize VPC. Read AWS blog post.
    • Each VPC is separate from any other VPC created with the same CIDR block even if it resides within the same AWS account
  • VPC allows VPC Peering connections with other VPC within the same or different AWS accounts
  • Connection between your VPC and corporate or home network can be established, however the CIDR blocks should be not be overlapping for e.g. VPC with CIDR 10.0.0.0/16 can communicate with 10.1.0.0/16 corporate network but the connections would be dropped if it tries to connect to 10.0.37.0/16 corporate network cause of overlapping ip addresses.
  • VPC allows you to set tenancy option for the Instances launched in it. By default, the tenancy option is shared. If dedicated option selected, all the instances within it are launched on a dedicated hardware overriding the individual instance tenancy setting
  • Deletion of the VPC is possible only after terminating all instances within the VPC, and deleting all the components with the VPC for e.g. subnets, security groups, network ACLs, route tables, Internet gateways, VPC peering connections, and DHCP options
AWS VPC Components

IP Addresses

Instances launched in the VPC can have Private, Public and Elastic IP address assigned to it and are properties of ENI (Network Interfaces)

  • Private IP Addresses
    • Private IP addresses are not reachable over the Internet, and can be used for communication only between the instances within the VPC
    • All instances are assigned a private IP address, within the IP address range of the subnet, to the default network interface
    • Primary IP address is associated with the network interface for its lifetime, even when the instance is stopped and restarted and is released only when the instance is terminated
    • Additional Private IP addresses, known as secondary private IP address, can be assigned to the instances and these can be reassigned from one network interface to another
  • Public IP address
    • Public IP addresses are reachable over the Internet, and can be used for communication between instances and the Internet, or with other AWS services that have public endpoints
    • Public IP address assignment to the Instance depends if the Public IP Addressing is enabled for the Subnet.
    • Public IP address can also be assigned to the Instance by enabling the Public IP addressing during the creation of the instance, which overrides the subnet’s public IP addressing attribute
    • Public IP address is assigned from AWS pool of IP addresses and it is not associated with the AWS account and hence is released when the instance is stopped and restarted or terminated.
  • Elastic IP address
    • Elastic IP addresses are static, persistent public IP addresses which can be associated and disassociated with the instance, as required
    • Elastic IP address is allocated at an VPC and owned by the account unless released
    • A Network Interface can be assigned either a Public IP or an Elastic IP. If you assign an instance, already having an Public IP, an Elastic IP, the public IP is released
    • Elastic IP addresses can be moved from one instance to another, which can be within the same or different VPC within the same account
    • Elastic IP are charged for non usage i.e. if it is not associated or associated with a stopped instance or an unattached Network Interface

Elastic Network Interface (ENI)

  • Each Instance is attached with default elastic network interface (Primary Network Interface eth0) and cannot be detached from the instance
  • ENI can include the following attributes
    • Primary private IP address
    • One or more secondary private IP addresses
    • One Elastic IP address per private IP address
    • One public IP address, which can be auto-assigned to the network interface for eth0 when you launch an instance, but only when you create a network interface for eth0 instead of using an existing ENI
    • One or more security groups
    • A MAC address
    • A source/destination check flag
    • A description
  • ENI’s attributes follow the ENI as it is attached or detached from an instance and reattached to another instance. When an ENI is moved from one instance to another, network traffic is redirected to the new instance.
  • Multiple ENIs can be attached to an instance and is useful for use cases:
    • Create a management network.
    • Use network and security appliances in your VPC.
    • Create dual-homed instances with workloads/roles on distinct subnets.
    • Create a low-budget, high-availability solution.

Route Tables

  • Route table defines rules, termed as routes, which determine where network traffic from the subnet would be routed
  • Each VPC has a implicit router to route network traffic
  • Each VPC has a Main Route table, and can have multiple custom route tables created
  • Each Subnet within a VPC must be associated with a single route table at a time, while a route table can have multiple subnets associated with it
  • Subnet, if not explicitly associated to a route table, is implicitly associated with the main route table
  • Every route table contains a local route that enables communication within a VPC which cannot be modified or deleted
  • Route priority is decided by matching the most specific route in the route table that matches the traffic
  • Route tables needs to be updated to defined routes for Internet gateways, Virtual Private gateways, VPC Peering, VPC Endpoints, NAT Device etc.

Internet Gateways – IGW

  • An Internet gateway is a horizontally scaled, redundant, and highly available VPC component that allows communication between instances in the VPC and the Internet.
  • IGW imposes no availability risks or bandwidth constraints on the network traffic.
  • An Internet gateway serves two purposes:
    • To provide a target in the VPC route tables for Internet-routable traffic,
    • To perform network address translation (NAT) for instances that have been NOT been assigned public IP addresses.
  • Enabling Internet access to an Instance requires
    • Attaching Internet gateway to the VPC
    • Subnet should have route tables associated with the route pointing to the Internet gateway
    • Instances should have a Public IP or Elastic IP address assigned
    • Security groups and NACLs associated with the Instance should allow relevant traffic

NAT

  • NAT device enables instances in a private subnet to connect to the Internet or other AWS services, but prevents the Internet from initiating connections with the instances.
  • NAT devices do not support IPv6 traffic, use an egress-only Internet gateway instead. 

Refer to My Blog Post about VPC NAT

Egress-only Internet gateway

  • Egress-only Internet gateway works as a NAT gateway, but for IPv6 traffic
  • Egress-only Internet gateway is a horizontally scaled, redundant, and highly available VPC component that allows outbound communication over IPv6 from instances in the VPC to the Internet, and prevents the Internet from initiating an IPv6 connection with the instances.
  • An egress-only Internet gateway is for use with IPv6 traffic only. To enable outbound-only Internet communication over IPv4, use a NAT gateway instead.

VPC & Subnet Sizing

  • VPC supports IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, and has different CIDR block size limits for each
  • IPv6 CIDR block can be optionally associated with the VPC
  • VPC IPv4 CIDR block cannot be modified once created i.e. cannot increase or decrease the size of an existing CIDR block.
  • However, secondary CIDR blocks can be associated with the VPC to extend the VPC
  • Limitations
    • allowed block size is between a /28 netmask and /16 netmask.
    • CIDR block must not overlap with any existing CIDR block that’s associated with the VPC.
    • CIDR block must not be the same or larger than the CIDR range of a route in any of the VPC route tables for e.g. for a CIDR block 10.0.0.0/24, can only associate smaller CIDR blocks like 10.0.0.0/25
Secondary VPC Limitations

VPC Security

Security within a VPC is provided through

  • Security groups – Act as a firewall for associated EC2 instances, controlling both inbound and outbound traffic at the instance level
  • Network access control lists (ACLs) – Act as a firewall for associated subnets, controlling both inbound and outbound traffic at the subnet level
  • Flow logs – Capture information about the IP traffic going to and from network interfaces in your VPC

Security Groups & NACLs

Refer to My Blog Post about AWS Security Group vs NACLs

VPC Flow logs

  • VPC Flow Logs is a feature that enables you to capture information about the IP traffic going to and from network interfaces in the VPC and can help in monitoring the traffic or troubleshooting any connectivity issues
  • Flow log data is stored using Amazon CloudWatch Logs
  • Flow log can be created for the entire VPC, subnets or each network interface. If enabled, for entire VPC or subnet all the network interfaces are monitored
  • Flow logs do not capture real-time log streams for network interfaces.
  • Flow logs can be created for network interfaces that are created by other AWS services; for example, Elastic Load Balancing, RDS, ElastiCache, Redshift, and WorkSpaces

Subnets

  • Subnet spans a single Availability Zone, distinct locations engineered to be isolated from failures in other AZs, and cannot span across AZs
  • Subnet can be configured with an Internet gateway to enable communication over the Internet, or virtual private gateway (VPN) connection to enable communication with your corporate network
  • Subnet can be Public or Private and it depends on whether it has Internet connectivity i.e. is able to route traffic to the Internet through the IGW
  • Instances within the Public Subnet should be assigned a Public IP or Elastic IP address to be able to communicate with the Internet
  • For Subnets not connected to the Internet, but has traffic routed through Virtual Private Gateway only is termed as VPN-only subnet
  • Subnets can be configured to Enable assignment of the Public IP address to all the Instances launched within the Subnet by default, which can be overridden during the creation of the Instance
  • Subnet Sizing
    • CIDR block assigned to the Subnet can be the same as the VPC CIDR, in this case you can launch only one subnet within your VPC
    • CIDR block assigned to the Subnet can be a subset of the VPC CIDR, which allows you to launch multiple subnets within the VPC
    • CIDR block assigned to the subnet should not be overlapping
    • CIDR block size allowed is between
      • /28 netmask (minimum with 2^4 – 16 available IP address) and
      • /16 netmask (maximum with 2^16 – 65536 IP address)
    • AWS reserves 5 IPs address (first 4 and last 1 IP address) in each Subnet which are not available for use and cannot be assigned to an instance. for e.g. for a Subnet with a CIDR block 10.0.0.0/24 the following five IPs are reserved
      • 10.0.0.0: Network address
      • 10.0.0.1: Reserved by AWS for the VPC router
      • 10.0.0.2: Reserved by AWS for mapping to Amazon-provided DNS
      • 10.0.0.3: Reserved by AWS for future use
      • 10.0.0.255: Network broadcast address. AWS does not support broadcast in a VPC, therefore the address is reserved.
  • Subnet Routing
    • Each Subnet is associated with a route table which controls the traffic.
  • Subnet Security
    • Subnet security can be configured using Security groups and NACLs
    • Security groups works at instance level, NACLs work at the subnet level

Shared VPCs

  • VPC sharing allows multiple AWS accounts to create their application resources, such as EC2 instances, RDS databases, Redshift clusters, and AWS Lambda functions, into shared, centrally-managed VPCs.
  • In this model, the account that owns the VPC (owner) shares one or more subnets with other accounts (participants) that belong to the same organization from AWS Organizations.
  • After a subnet is shared, the participants can view, create, modify, and delete their application resources in the subnets shared with them. Participants cannot view, modify, or delete resources that belong to other participants or the VPC owner.

VPC Endpoints

Refer to My Blog Post about VPC Endpoint

VPC Peering

Refer to My Blog Post about VPC Peering

VPC VPN Connections & CloudHub

Refer to My Blog Post about AWS VPC VPN CloudHub Connections

AWS Certification Exam Practice Questions

  • Questions are collected from Internet and the answers are marked as per my knowledge and understanding (which might differ with yours).
  • AWS services are updated everyday and both the answers and questions might be outdated soon, so research accordingly.
  • AWS exam questions are not updated to keep up the pace with AWS updates, so even if the underlying feature has changed the question might not be updated
  • Open to further feedback, discussion and correction.
  1. You have a business-to-business web application running in a VPC consisting of an Elastic Load Balancer (ELB), web servers, application servers and a database. Your web application should only accept traffic from predefined customer IP addresses. Which two options meet this security requirement? Choose 2 answers
    1. Configure web server VPC security groups to allow traffic from your customers’ IPs (Web server is behind the ELB and customer IPs will never reach web servers)
    2. Configure your web servers to filter traffic based on the ELB’s “X-forwarded-for” header (get the customer IPs and create a custom filter to restrict access. Refer link)
    3. Configure ELB security groups to allow traffic from your customers’ IPs and deny all outbound traffic (ELB will see the customer IPs so can restrict access, deny all is basically have no rules in outbound traffic, implicit, and its stateful so would work)
    4. Configure a VPC NACL to allow web traffic from your customers’ IPs and deny all outbound traffic (NACL is stateless, deny all will not work)
  2. A user has created a VPC with public and private subnets using the VPC Wizard. The VPC has CIDR 20.0.0.0/16. The private subnet uses CIDR 20.0.0.0/24. Which of the below mentioned entries are required in the main route table to allow the instances in VPC to communicate with each other?
    1. Destination : 20.0.0.0/24 and Target : VPC
    2. Destination : 20.0.0.0/16 and Target : ALL
    3. Destination : 20.0.0.0/0 and Target : ALL
    4. Destination : 20.0.0.0/16 and Target : Local
  3. A user has created a VPC with two subnets: one public and one private. The user is planning to run the patch update for the instances in the private subnet. How can the instances in the private subnet connect to the internet?
    1. Use the internet gateway with a private IP
    2. Allow outbound traffic in the security group for port 80 to allow internet updates
    3. The private subnet can never connect to the internet
    4. Use NAT with an elastic IP
  4. A user has launched an EC2 instance and installed a website with the Apache webserver. The webserver is running but the user is not able to access the website from the Internet. What can be the possible reason for this failure?
    1. The security group of the instance is not configured properly.
    2. The instance is not configured with the proper key-pairs.
    3. The Apache website cannot be accessed from the Internet.
    4. Instance is not configured with an elastic IP.
  5. A user has created a VPC with public and private subnets using the VPC wizard. Which of the below mentioned statements is true in this scenario?
    1. AWS VPC will automatically create a NAT instance with the micro size
    2. VPC bounds the main route table with a private subnet and a custom route table with a public subnet
    3. User has to manually create a NAT instance
    4. VPC bounds the main route table with a public subnet and a custom route table with a private subnet
  6. A user has created a VPC with public and private subnets. The VPC has CIDR 20.0.0.0/16. The private subnet uses CIDR 20.0.1.0/24 and the public subnet uses CIDR 20.0.0.0/24. The user is planning to host a web server in the public subnet (port 80) and a DB server in the private subnet (port 3306). The user is configuring a security group of the NAT instance. Which of the below mentioned entries is not required for the NAT security group?
    1. For Inbound allow Source: 20.0.1.0/24 on port 80
    2. For Outbound allow Destination: 0.0.0.0/0 on port 80
    3. For Inbound allow Source: 20.0.0.0/24 on port 80
    4. For Outbound allow Destination: 0.0.0.0/0 on port 443
  7. A user has created a VPC with CIDR 20.0.0.0/24. The user has used all the IPs of CIDR and wants to increase the size of the VPC. The user has two subnets: public (20.0.0.0/25) and private (20.0.0.128/25). How can the user change the size of the VPC?
    1. The user can delete all the instances of the subnet. Change the size of the subnets to 20.0.0.0/32 and 20.0.1.0/32, respectively. Then the user can increase the size of the VPC using CLI
    2. It is not possible to change the size of the VPC once it has been created (NOTE – You can now increase the VPC size. Read Post)
    3. User can add a subnet with a higher range so that it will automatically increase the size of the VPC
    4. User can delete the subnets first and then modify the size of the VPC
  8. A user has created a VPC with the public and private subnets using the VPC wizard. The VPC has CIDR 20.0.0.0/16. The public subnet uses CIDR 20.0.1.0/24. The user is planning to host a web server in the public subnet (port 80) and a DB server in the private subnet (port 3306). The user is configuring a security group for the public subnet (WebSecGrp) and the private subnet (DBSecGrp). Which of the below mentioned entries is required in the web server security group (WebSecGrp)?
    1. Configure Destination as DB Security group ID (DbSecGrp) for port 3306 Outbound
    2. Configure port 80 for Destination 0.0.0.0/0 Outbound
    3. Configure port 3306 for source 20.0.0.0/24 InBound
    4. Configure port 80 InBound for source 20.0.0.0/16
  9. A user has created a VPC with CIDR 20.0.0.0/16. The user has created one subnet with CIDR 20.0.0.0/16 by mistake. The user is trying to create another subnet of CIDR 20.0.0.1/24. How can the user create the second subnet?
    1. There is no need to update the subnet as VPC automatically adjusts the CIDR of the first subnet based on the second subnet’s CIDR
    2. The user can modify the first subnet CIDR from the console
    3. It is not possible to create a second subnet as one subnet with the same CIDR as the VPC has been created
    4. The user can modify the first subnet CIDR with AWS CLI
  10. A user has setup a VPC with CIDR 20.0.0.0/16. The VPC has a private subnet (20.0.1.0/24) and a public subnet (20.0.0.0/24). The user’s data centre has CIDR of 20.0.54.0/24 and 20.1.0.0/24. If the private subnet wants to communicate with the data centre, what will happen?
    1. It will allow traffic communication on both the CIDRs of the data centre
    2. It will not allow traffic with data centre on CIDR 20.1.0.0/24 but allows traffic communication on 20.0.54.0/24
    3. It will not allow traffic communication on any of the data centre CIDRs
    4. It will allow traffic with data centre on CIDR 20.1.0.0/24 but does not allow on 20.0.54.0/24 (as the CIDR block would be overlapping)
  11. A user has created a VPC with public and private subnets using the VPC wizard. The VPC has CIDR 20.0.0.0/16. The private subnet uses CIDR 20.0.0.0/24 . The NAT instance ID is i-a12345. Which of the below mentioned entries are required in the main route table attached with the private subnet to allow instances to connect with the internet?
    1. Destination: 0.0.0.0/0 and Target: i-a12345
    2. Destination: 20.0.0.0/0 and Target: 80
    3. Destination: 20.0.0.0/0 and Target: i-a12345
    4. Destination: 20.0.0.0/24 and Target: i-a12345
  12. A user has created a VPC with CIDR 20.0.0.0/16 using the wizard. The user has created a public subnet CIDR (20.0.0.0/24) and VPN only subnets CIDR (20.0.1.0/24) along with the VPN gateway (vgw-12345) to connect to the user’s data centre. The user’s data centre has CIDR 172.28.0.0/12. The user has also setup a NAT instance (i-123456) to allow traffic to the internet from the VPN subnet. Which of the below mentioned options is not a valid entry for the main route table in this scenario?
    1. Destination: 20.0.1.0/24 and Target: i-12345
    2. Destination: 0.0.0.0/0 and Target: i-12345
    3. Destination: 172.28.0.0/12 and Target: vgw-12345
    4. Destination: 20.0.0.0/16 and Target: local
  13. A user has created a VPC with CIDR 20.0.0.0/16. The user has created one subnet with CIDR 20.0.0.0/16 in this VPC. The user is trying to create another subnet with the same VPC for CIDR 20.0.0.1/24. What will happen in this scenario?
    1. The VPC will modify the first subnet CIDR automatically to allow the second subnet IP range
    2. It is not possible to create a subnet with the same CIDR as VPC
    3. The second subnet will be created
    4. It will throw a CIDR overlaps error
  14. A user has created a VPC with CIDR 20.0.0.0/16 using the wizard. The user has created both Public and VPN-Only subnets along with hardware VPN access to connect to the user’s data centre. The user has not yet launched any instance as well as modified or deleted any setup. He wants to delete this VPC from the console. Will the console allow the user to delete the VPC?
    1. Yes, the console will delete all the setups and also delete the virtual private gateway
    2. No, the console will ask the user to manually detach the virtual private gateway first and then allow deleting the VPC
    3. Yes, the console will delete all the setups and detach the virtual private gateway
    4. No, since the NAT instance is running
  15. A user has created a VPC with the public and private subnets using the VPC wizard. The VPC has CIDR 20.0.0.0/16. The public subnet uses CIDR 20.0.1.0/24. The user is planning to host a web server in the public subnet (port 80) and a DB server in the private subnet (port 3306). The user is configuring a security group for the public subnet (WebSecGrp) and the private subnet (DBSecGrp). Which of the below mentioned entries is required in the private subnet database security group (DBSecGrp)?
    1. Allow Inbound on port 3306 for Source Web Server Security Group (WebSecGrp)
    2. Allow Inbound on port 3306 from source 20.0.0.0/16
    3. Allow Outbound on port 3306 for Destination Web Server Security Group (WebSecGrp.
    4. Allow Outbound on port 80 for Destination NAT Instance IP
  16. A user has created a VPC with a subnet and a security group. The user has launched an instance in that subnet and attached a public IP. The user is still unable to connect to the instance. The internet gateway has also been created. What can be the reason for the error?
    1. The internet gateway is not configured with the route table
    2. The private IP is not present
    3. The outbound traffic on the security group is disabled
    4. The internet gateway is not configured with the security group
  17. A user has created a subnet in VPC and launched an EC2 instance within it. The user has not selected the option to assign the IP address while launching the instance. Which of the below mentioned statements is true with respect to the Instance requiring access to the Internet?
    1. The instance will always have a public DNS attached to the instance by default
    2. The user can directly attach an elastic IP to the instance
    3. The instance will never launch if the public IP is not assigned
    4. The user would need to create an internet gateway and then attach an elastic IP to the instance to connect from internet
  18. A user has created a VPC with public and private subnets using the VPC wizard. Which of the below mentioned statements is not true in this scenario?
    1. VPC will create a routing instance and attach it with a public subnet
    2. VPC will create two subnets
    3. VPC will create one internet gateway and attach it to VPC
    4. VPC will launch one NAT instance with an elastic IP
  19. A user has created a VPC with the public subnet. The user has created a security group for that VPC. Which of the below mentioned statements is true when a security group is created?
    1. It can connect to the AWS services, such as S3 and RDS by default
    2. It will have all the inbound traffic by default
    3. It will have all the outbound traffic by default
    4. It will by default allow traffic to the internet gateway
  20. A user has created a VPC with CIDR 20.0.0.0/16 using VPC Wizard. The user has created a public CIDR (20.0.0.0/24) and a VPN only subnet CIDR (20.0.1.0/24) along with the hardware VPN access to connect to the user’s data centre. Which of the below mentioned components is not present when the VPC is setup with the wizard?
    1. Main route table attached with a VPN only subnet
    2. A NAT instance configured to allow the VPN subnet instances to connect with the internet
    3. Custom route table attached with a public subnet
    4. An internet gateway for a public subnet
  21. A user has created a VPC with public and private subnets using the VPC wizard. The user has not launched any instance manually and is trying to delete the VPC. What will happen in this scenario?
    1. It will not allow to delete the VPC as it has subnets with route tables
    2. It will not allow to delete the VPC since it has a running route instance
    3. It will terminate the VPC along with all the instances launched by the wizard
    4. It will not allow to delete the VPC since it has a running NAT instance
  22. A user has created a public subnet with VPC and launched an EC2 instance within it. The user is trying to delete the subnet. What will happen in this scenario?
    1. It will delete the subnet and make the EC2 instance as a part of the default subnet
    2. It will not allow the user to delete the subnet until the instances are terminated
    3. It will delete the subnet as well as terminate the instances
    4. Subnet can never be deleted independently, but the user has to delete the VPC first
  23. A user has created a VPC with CIDR 20.0.0.0/24. The user has created a public subnet with CIDR 20.0.0.0/25 and a private subnet with CIDR 20.0.0.128/25. The user has launched one instance each in the private and public subnets. Which of the below mentioned options cannot be the correct IP address (private IP) assigned to an instance in the public or private subnet?
    1. 20.0.0.255
    2. 20.0.0.132
    3. 20.0.0.122
    4. 20.0.0.55
  24. A user has created a VPC with CIDR 20.0.0.0/16. The user has created public and VPN only subnets along with hardware VPN access to connect to the user’s datacenter. The user wants to make so that all traffic coming to the public subnet follows the organization’s proxy policy. How can the user make this happen?
    1. Setting up a NAT with the proxy protocol and configure that the public subnet receives traffic from NAT
    2. Setting up a proxy policy in the internet gateway connected with the public subnet
    3. It is not possible to setup the proxy policy for a public subnet
    4. Setting the route table and security group of the public subnet which receives traffic from a virtual private gateway
  25. A user has created a VPC with CIDR 20.0.0.0/16 using the wizard. The user has created a public subnet CIDR (20.0.0.0/24) and VPN only subnets CIDR (20.0.1.0/24) along with the VPN gateway (vgw-12345) to connect to the user’s data centre. Which of the below mentioned options is a valid entry for the main route table in this scenario?
    1. Destination: 20.0.0.0/24 and Target: vgw-12345
    2. Destination: 20.0.0.0/16 and Target: ALL
    3. Destination: 20.0.1.0/16 and Target: vgw-12345
    4. Destination: 0.0.0.0/0 and Target: vgw-12345
  26. Which two components provide connectivity with external networks? When attached to an Amazon VPC which two components provide connectivity with external networks? Choose 2 answers
    1. Elastic IPs (EIP) (Does not provide connectivity, public IP address will do as well)
    2. NAT Gateway (NAT) (Not Attached to VPC and still needs IGW)
    3. Internet Gateway (IGW)
    4. Virtual Private Gateway (VGW)
  27. You are attempting to connect to an instance in Amazon VPC without success You have already verified that the VPC has an Internet Gateway (IGW) the instance has an associated Elastic IP (EIP) and correct security group rules are in place. Which VPC component should you evaluate next?
    1. The configuration of a NAT instance
    2. The configuration of the Routing Table
    3. The configuration of the internet Gateway (IGW)
    4. The configuration of SRC/DST checking
  28. If you want to launch Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) Instances and assign each Instance a predetermined private IP address you should:
    1. Assign a group or sequential Elastic IP address to the instances
    2. Launch the instances in a Placement Group
    3. Launch the instances in the Amazon virtual Private Cloud (VPC)
    4. Use standard EC2 instances since each instance gets a private Domain Name Service (DNS) already
    5. Launch the Instance from a private Amazon Machine image (AMI)
  29. A user has recently started using EC2. The user launched one EC2 instance in the default subnet in EC2-VPC Which of the below mentioned options is not attached or available with the EC2 instance when it is launched?
    1. Public IP address
    2. Internet gateway
    3. Elastic IP
    4. Private IP address
  30. A user has created a VPC with CIDR 20.0.0.0/24. The user has created a public subnet with CIDR 20.0.0.0/25. The user is trying to create the private subnet with CIDR 20.0.0.128/25. Which of the below mentioned statements is true in this scenario?
    1. It will not allow the user to create the private subnet due to a CIDR overlap
    2. It will allow the user to create a private subnet with CIDR as 20.0.0.128/25
    3. This statement is wrong as AWS does not allow CIDR 20.0.0.0/25
    4. It will not allow the user to create a private subnet due to a wrong CIDR range
  31. A user has created a VPC with CIDR 20.0.0.0/16 with only a private subnet and VPN connection using the VPC wizard. The user wants to connect to the instance in a private subnet over SSH. How should the user define the security rule for SSH?
    1. Allow Inbound traffic on port 22 from the user’s network
    2. The user has to create an instance in EC2 Classic with an elastic IP and configure the security group of a private subnet to allow SSH from that elastic IP
    3. The user can connect to a instance in a private subnet using the NAT instance
    4. Allow Inbound traffic on port 80 and 22 to allow the user to connect to a private subnet over the Internet
  32. A company wants to implement their website in a virtual private cloud (VPC). The web tier will use an Auto Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones (AZs). The database will use Multi-AZ RDS MySQL and should not be publicly accessible. What is the minimum number of subnets that need to be configured in the VPC?
    1. 1
    2. 2
    3. 3
    4. 4 (2 public subnets for web instances in multiple AZs and 2 private subnets for RDS Multi-AZ)
  33. Which of the following are characteristics of Amazon VPC subnets? Choose 2 answers
    1. Each subnet maps to a single Availability Zone
    2. A CIDR block mask of /25 is the smallest range supported
    3. Instances in a private subnet can communicate with the Internet only if they have an Elastic IP.
    4. By default, all subnets can route between each other, whether they are private or public
    5. Each subnet spans at least 2 Availability zones to provide a high-availability environment
  34. You need to design a VPC for a web-application consisting of an Elastic Load Balancer (ELB). a fleet of web/application servers, and an RDS database The entire Infrastructure must be distributed over 2 availability zones. Which VPC configuration works while assuring the database is not available from the Internet?
    1. One public subnet for ELB one public subnet for the web-servers, and one private subnet for the database
    2. One public subnet for ELB two private subnets for the web-servers, two private subnets for RDS
    3. Two public subnets for ELB two private subnets for the web-servers and two private subnets for RDS
    4. Two public subnets for ELB two public subnets for the web-servers, and two public subnets for RDS
  35. You have deployed a three-tier web application in a VPC with a CIDR block of 10.0.0.0/28. You initially deploy two web servers, two application servers, two database servers and one NAT instance tor a total of seven EC2 instances. The web, application and database servers are deployed across two availability zones (AZs). You also deploy an ELB in front of the two web servers, and use Route53 for DNS Web traffic gradually increases in the first few days following the deployment, so you attempt to double the number of instances in each tier of the application to handle the new load unfortunately some of these new instances fail to launch. Which of the following could the root caused? (Choose 2 answers) [PROFESSIONAL]
    1. The Internet Gateway (IGW) of your VPC has scaled-up adding more instances to handle the traffic spike, reducing the number of available private IP addresses for new instance launches.
    2. AWS reserves one IP address in each subnet’s CIDR block for Route53 so you do not have enough addresses left to launch all of the new EC2 instances.
    3. AWS reserves the first and the last private IP address in each subnet’s CIDR block so you do not have enough addresses left to launch all of the new EC2 instances.
    4. The ELB has scaled-up. Adding more instances to handle the traffic reducing the number of available private IP addresses for new instance launches
    5. AWS reserves the first four and the last IP address in each subnet’s CIDR block so you do not have enough addresses left to launch all of the new EC2 instances.
  36. A user wants to access RDS from an EC2 instance using IP addresses. Both RDS and EC2 are in the same region, but different AZs. Which of the below mentioned options help configure that the instance is accessed faster?
    1. Configure the Private IP of the Instance in RDS security group (Recommended as the data is transferred within the the Amazon network and not through internet – Refer link)
    2. Security group of EC2 allowed in the RDS security group
    3. Configuring the elastic IP of the instance in RDS security group
    4. Configure the Public IP of the instance in RDS security group
  37. In regards to VPC, select the correct statement:
    1. You can associate multiple subnets with the same Route Table.
    2. You can associate multiple subnets with the same Route Table, but you can’t associate a subnet with only one Route Table.
    3. You can’t associate multiple subnets with the same Route Table.
    4. None of these.
  38. You need to design a VPC for a web-application consisting of an ELB a fleet of web application servers, and an RDS DB. The entire infrastructure must be distributed over 2 AZ. Which VPC configuration works while assuring the DB is not available from the Internet?
    1. One Public Subnet for ELB, one Public Subnet for the web-servers, and one private subnet for the DB
    2. One Public Subnet for ELB, two Private Subnets for the web-servers, and two private subnets for the RDS
    3. Two Public Subnets for ELB, two private Subnet for the web-servers, and two private subnet for the RDS
    4. Two Public Subnets for ELB, two Public Subnet for the web-servers, and two public subnets for the RDS
  39. You have an Amazon VPC with one private subnet and one public subnet with a Network Address Translator (NAT) server. You are creating a group of Amazon Elastic Cloud Compute (EC2) instances that configure themselves at startup via downloading a bootstrapping script from Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) that deploys an application via GIT. Which setup provides the highest level of security?
    1. Amazon EC2 instances in private subnet, no EIPs, route outgoing traffic via the NAT
    2. Amazon EC2 instances in public subnet, no EIPs, route outgoing traffic via the Internet Gateway (IGW)
    3. Amazon EC2 instances in private subnet, assign EIPs, route outgoing traffic via the Internet Gateway (IGW)
    4. Amazon EC2 instances in public subnet, assign EIPs, route outgoing traffic via the NAT
  40. You have launched an Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) instance into a public subnet with a primary private IP address assigned, an internet gateway is attached to the VPC, and the public route table is configured to send all Internet-based traffic to the Internet gateway. The instance security group is set to allow all outbound traffic but cannot access the Internet. Why is the Internet unreachable from this instance?
    1. The instance does not have a public IP address
    2. The Internet gateway security group must allow all outbound traffic.
    3. The instance security group must allow all inbound traffic.
    4. The instance “Source/Destination check” property must be enabled.
  41. You have an environment that consists of a public subnet using Amazon VPC and 3 instances that are running in this subnet. These three instances can successfully communicate with other hosts on the Internet. You launch a fourth instance in the same subnet, using the same AMI and security group configuration you used for the others, but find that this instance cannot be accessed from the internet. What should you do to enable Internet access?
    1. Deploy a NAT instance into the public subnet.
    2. Assign an Elastic IP address to the fourth instance
    3. Configure a publically routable IP Address in the host OS of the fourth instance.
    4. Modify the routing table for the public subnet.
  42. You have a load balancer configured for VPC, and all back-end Amazon EC2 instances are in service. However, your web browser times out when connecting to the load balancer’s DNS name. Which options are probable causes of this behavior? Choose 2 answers
    1. The load balancer was not configured to use a public subnet with an Internet gateway configured
    2. The Amazon EC2 instances do not have a dynamically allocated private IP address
    3. The security groups or network ACLs are not property configured for web traffic.
    4. The load balancer is not configured in a private subnet with a NAT instance.
    5. The VPC does not have a VGW configured.
  43. When will you incur costs with an Elastic IP address (EIP)?
    1. When an EIP is allocated.
    2. When it is allocated and associated with a running instance.
    3. When it is allocated and associated with a stopped instance.
    4. Costs are incurred regardless of whether the EIP is associated with a running instance.
  44. A company currently has a VPC with EC2 Instances. A new instance being launched, which will host an application that works on IPv6. You need to ensure that this instance can initiate outgoing traffic to the Internet. At the same time, you need to ensure that no incoming connection can be initiated from the Internet on to the instance. Which of the following would you add to the VPC for this requirement?
    1. A NAT Instance
    2. A NAT Gateway
    3. An Internet Gateway
    4. An egress-only Internet gateway

References

AWS_VPC_User_Guide

AWS VPC Peering – Certification

VPC Peering Overview

  • A VPC peering connection is a networking connection between two VPCs that enables routing of traffic between them using private IP addresses.
  • Instances in either VPC can communicate with each other as if they are within the same network
  • VPC peering connection can be established between your own VPCs, or with a VPC in another AWS account in a single different region.
  • AWS uses the existing infrastructure of a VPC to create a VPC peering connection; it is neither a gateway nor a VPN connection, and does not rely on a separate piece of physical hardware.
  • There is no single point of failure for communication or a bandwidth bottleneck

VPC Peering Rules & Limitations

  1. VPC peering connection cannot be created between VPCs that have matching or overlapping CIDR blocks.
  2. VPC peering connection cannot be created between VPCs in different regions. (NOTEVPC Peering is now supported inter-region.)
  3. VPC peering connection are limited on the number active and pending VPC peering connections that you can have per VPC.
  4. VPC peering does not support transitive peering relationships. In a VPC peering connection, the VPC does not have access to any other VPCs that the peer VPC may be peered with even if established entirely within your own AWS account
  5. VPC peering does not support Edge to Edge Routing Through a Gateway or Private Connection
  6. In a VPC peering connection, the VPC does not have access to any other connection that the peer VPC may have and vice versa. Connections that the peer VPC can include
    1. A VPN connection or an AWS Direct Connect connection to a corporate network
    2. An Internet connection through an Internet gateway
    3. An Internet connection in a private subnet through a NAT device
    4. A ClassicLink connection to an EC2-Classic instance
    5. A VPC endpoint to an AWS service; for example, an endpoint to S3.
  7. Only one VPC peering connection can be established between the same two VPCs at the same time
  8. Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) across a VPC peering connection is 1500 bytes.
  9. A placement group can span peered VPCs that are in the same region; however, you do not get full-bisection bandwidth between instances in peered VPCs
  10. Any tags created for the VPC peering connection are only applied in the account or region in which they were created
  11. Unicast reverse path forwarding in VPC peering connections is not supported
  12. Instance’s public DNS hostname does not resolve to its private IP address across peered VPCs.
  13. Circa July 2016, Instance’s Public DNS can now be resolved to its private IP address across peered VPCs

VPC Peering Architecture

AWS VPC Architecture
  • VPC Peering can be applied to create shared services or perform authentication with an on-premises instance
  • This would help creating a single point of contact, as well limiting the VPN connections to a single account or VPC

AWS Certification Exam Practice Questions

  • Questions are collected from Internet and the answers are marked as per my knowledge and understanding (which might differ with yours).
  • AWS services are updated everyday and both the answers and questions might be outdated soon, so research accordingly.
  • AWS exam questions are not updated to keep up the pace with AWS updates, so even if the underlying feature has changed the question might not be updated
  • Open to further feedback, discussion and correction.
  1. A company has an AWS account that contains three VPCs (Dev, Test, and Prod) in the same region. Test is peered to both Prod and Dev. All VPCs have non-overlapping CIDR blocks. The company wants to push minor code releases from Dev to Prod to speed up time to market. Which of the following options helps the company accomplish this?
    1. Create a new peering connection Between Prod and Dev along with appropriate routes.
    2. Create a new entry to Prod in the Dev route table using the peering connection as the target.
    3. Attach a second gateway to Dev. Add a new entry in the Prod route table identifying the gateway as the target.
    4. The VPCs have non-overlapping CIDR blocks in the same account. The route tables contain local routes for all VPCs.