AWS DynamoDB Throughput Capacity

AWS DynamoDB Throughput Capacity

  • AWS DynamoDB throughput capacity depends on the read/write capacity modes for processing reads and writes on the tables.
  • DynamoDB supports two types of read/write capacity modes:
    • On-demand
    • Provisioned

NOTE – Provisioned mode is covered in the AWS Certified Developer – Associate exam (DVA-C01) esp. the calculations. On-demand capacity mode is latest enhancement and does not yet feature in the exams.

Provisioned Mode

  • Provisioned mode requires you to specify the number of reads and writes per second as required by the application
  • Provisioned throughput is the maximum amount of capacity that an application can consume from a table or index
  • If the provisioned throughput capacity on a table or index is exceeded, it is subject to request throttling
  • Provisioned mode is a good for applications  
    • predictable application traffic
    • consistent traffic 
    • ability to forecast capacity requirements to control costs
  • Provisioned mode provides the following capacity units 
    • Read Capacity Units (RCU)
      • Total number of read capacity units required depends on the item size, and the consistent read model (eventually or strongly)
      • one RCU represents
        • two eventually consistent reads per second, for an item up to 4 KB in size i.e. 8 KB
        • one strongly consistent read per second for an item up to 4 KB in size i.e. 2x cost of eventually consistent reads
        • Transactional read requests require two read capacity units to perform one read per second for items up to 4 KB. i.e. 2x cost of strongly consistent reads
      • DynamoDB must consume additional read capacity units for items greater than 4 KB for e.g. for an 8 KB item size, 2 read capacity units to sustain one strongly consistent read per second, 1 read capacity unit if you choose eventually consistent reads, or 4 read capacity units for a transactional read request would be required
      • Item size is rounded off to 4 KB equivalents for e.g. a 6 KB or a 8 KB item in size would require the same RCU
    • Write Capacity Units (WCU)
      • Total number of write capacity units required depends on the item size only
      • one write per second for an item up to 1 KB in size
      • Transactional write requests require 2 write capacity units to perform one write per second for items up to 1 KB. i.e. 2x cost of general write.
      • DynamoDB must consume additional read capacity units for items greater than 1 KB for an 2 KB item size,  2 write capacity units would be required to sustain one write request per second or 4 write capacity units for a transactional write request
      • Item size is rounded off to 1 KB equivalents for e.g. a 0.5 KB or a 1 KB item would need the same WCU

Provisioned Mode Examples

  • DynamoDB table with provisioned capacity of 10 RCUs and 10 WCUs can support
    • Read throughput
      • Eventual consistency = 4KB * 10 * 2 = 80KB/sec
      • Strong consistency = 4KB * 10 = 40KB/sec
      • Transactional consistency = 4KB * 10 * 1/2 = 20KB/sec
    • Write throughput
      • Eventual and Strong consistency = 10 * 1KB = 10KB/sec
      • Transaction consistency = 10 * 1KB * 1/2 = 5KB/sec
  • Capacity units required for reading and writing 15KB item
    • Read capacity units – 15KB rounded to 4 blocks of 4KB = 4 RCUs
      • Eventual consistency 4 RCUs * 1/2 = 2 RCUs
      • Strong consistency 4 RCUs * 1 = 4 RCUs
      • Transactional consistency 4 RCUs * 2 = 8 RCUs
    • Write capacity units 15KB = 15 WCUs
      • Eventual and Strong consistency 15 WCUs * 1 = 15 WCUs
      • Transactional consistency 15 WCUs * 2 = 30 RCUs

On-demand Mode

  • On-demand mode provides flexible billing option capable of serving thousands of requests per second without capacity planning
  • There is no need to specify the expected read and write throughput
  • Charged for only the reads and writes that the application performs on the tables in terms of read request units and write request units.
  • Offers pay-per-request pricing for read and write requests so that you pay only for what you use
  • DynamoDB adapts rapidly to accommodate the changing load
  • DynamoDB on-demand using Request units which are similar to provisioned capacity Units
  • On-demand mode does not support reserved capacity

DynamoDB Burst Capacity

  • DynamoDB provides some flexibility in the per-partition throughput provisioning by providing burst capacity.
  • If partition’s throughput is not fully used, DynamoDB reserves a portion of that unused capacity for later bursts of throughput to handle usage spikes
  • DynamoDB currently retains up to 5 minutes (300 seconds) of unused read and write capacity.
  • During an occasional burst of read or write activity, these extra capacity units can be consumed quickly—even faster than the per-second provisioned throughput capacity that you’ve defined for your table.
  • DynamoDB can also consume burst capacity for background maintenance and other tasks without prior notice.

DynamoDB Adaptive Capacity

  • Adaptive capacity is a feature that enables DynamoDB to run imbalanced workloads indefinitely.
  • DynamoDB distributes the data across partitions and the throughput capacity is distributed equally across these partitions
  • However, when data access is imbalanced, a “hot” partition can receive a higher volume of read and write traffic compared to other partitions leading to throttling errors on that partition.
  • DynamoDB adaptive capacity enables the application to continue reading and writing to hot partitions without being throttled, provided that traffic does not exceed the table’s total provisioned capacity or the partition maximum capacity.
  • It minimizes throttling due to throughput exceptions.
  • It also helps reduce costs by enabling provisioning of only the needed throughput capacity.
  • Adaptive capacity is enabled automatically for every DynamoDB table, at no additional cost.

DynamoDB Throttling

  • Each partition on a DynamoDB table is subject to a hard limit of 1,000 write capacity units and 3,000 read capacity units.
  • If the workload is unevenly distributed across partitions, or if the workload relies on short periods of time with high usage (a burst of read or write activity), the table might be throttled.
    • Distribute read and write operations as evenly as possible across your table. A hot partition can degrade the overall performance of your table.
    • Implement a caching solution. If the workload is mostly read access to static data, then query results can be delivered much faster if the data is in a well‑designed cache rather than in a database. DynamoDB Accelerator (DAX) is a caching service that offers fast in‑memory performance for your application. ElastiCache can be used as well.
    • Implement error retries and exponential backoff. Exponential backoff can improve an application’s reliability by using progressively longer waits between retries. If using an AWS SDK, this logic is built‑in.

AWS Certification Exam Practice Questions

  • Questions are collected from Internet and the answers are marked as per my knowledge and understanding (which might differ with yours).
  • AWS services are updated everyday and both the answers and questions might be outdated soon, so research accordingly.
  • AWS exam questions are not updated to keep up the pace with AWS updates, so even if the underlying feature has changed the question might not be updated
  • Open to further feedback, discussion and correction.
  1. You need to migrate 10 million records in one hour into DynamoDB. All records are 1.5KB in size. The data is evenly distributed across the partition key. How many write capacity units should you provision during this batch load?
    1. 6667
    2. 4166
    3. 5556 ( 2 write units (1 for each 1KB) * 10 million/3600 secs)
    4. 2778
  2. A meteorological system monitors 600 temperature gauges, obtaining temperature samples every minute and saving each sample to a DynamoDB table. Each sample involves writing 1K of data and the writes are evenly distributed over time. How much write throughput is required for the target table?
    1. 1 write capacity unit
    2. 10 write capacity units ( 1 write unit for 1K * 600 gauges/60 secs)
    3. 60 write capacity units
    4. 600 write capacity units
    5. 3600 write capacity units
  3. A company is building a system to collect sensor data from its 36000 trucks, which is stored in DynamoDB. The trucks emit 1KB of data once every hour. How much write throughput is required for the target table. Choose an answer from the options below
    1. 10
    2. 60
    3. 600
    4. 150
  4. A company is using DynamoDB to design storage for their IOT project to store sensor data. Which combination would give the highest throughput?
    1. 5 Eventual Consistent reads capacity with Item Size of 4KB (40KB/s)
    2. 15 Eventual Consistent reads capacity with Item Size of 1KB (30KB/s)
    3. 5 Strongly Consistent reads capacity with Item Size of 4KB (20KB/s)
    4. 15 Strongly Consistent reads capacity with Item Size of 1KB (15KB/s)
  5. If your table item’s size is 3KB and you want to have 90 strongly consistent reads per second, how many read capacity units will you need to provision on the table? Choose the correct answer from the options below
    1. 90
    2. 45
    3. 10
    4. 19

References

AWS DynamoDB

AWS DynamoDB

  • Amazon DynamoDB is a fully managed NoSQL database service that
    • makes it simple and cost-effective to store and retrieve any amount of data and serve any level of request traffic.
    • provides fast and predictable performance with seamless scalability
  • DynamoDB enables customers to offload the administrative burdens of operating and scaling distributed databases to AWS, without having to worry about hardware provisioning, setup and configuration, replication, software patching, or cluster scaling.
  • DynamoDB tables do not have fixed schemas, and table consists of items and each item may have a different number of attributes.
  • DynamoDB synchronously replicates data across three facilities in an AWS Region, giving high availability and data durability.
  • DynamoDB supports fast in-place updates. A numeric attribute can be incremented or decremented in a row using a single API call
  • DynamoDB uses proven cryptographic methods to securely authenticate users and prevent unauthorized data access
  • Durability, performance, reliability, and security are built in, with SSD (solid state drive) storage and automatic 3-way replication.
  • DynamoDB supports two different kinds of primary keys:
    • Partition Key (previously called the Hash key)
      • A simple primary key, composed of one attribute
      • DynamoDB uses the partition key’s value as input to an internal hash function; the output from the hash function determine the partition where the item will be stored.
      • No two items in a table can have the same partition key value.
    • Partition Key and Sort Key (previously called the Hash and Range key)
      • A composite primary key composed of two attributes. The first attribute is the partition key, and the second attribute is the sort key.
      • DynamoDB uses the partition key value as input to an internal hash function; the output from the hash function determines the partition where the item will be stored.
      • All items with the same partition key are stored together, in sorted order by sort key value.
      • Combination of partition key and sort key must be unique
      • It is possible for two items to have the same partition key value, but those two items must have different sort key values.
  • DynamoDB Secondary indexes
    • add flexibility to the queries, without impacting performance.
    • are automatically maintained as sparse objects, items will only appear in an index if they exist in the table on which the index is defined making queries against an index very efficient
  • DynamoDB throughput and single-digit millisecond latency makes it a great fit for gaming, ad tech, mobile, and many other applications
  • ElastiCache can be used in front of DynamoDB in order to offload high amount of reads for non frequently changed data

DynamoDB Consistency

  • Each DynamoDB table is automatically stored in the three geographically distributed locations for durability
  • Read consistency represents the manner and timing in which the successful write or update of a data item is reflected in a subsequent read operation of that same item
  • DynamoDB allows user to specify whether the read should be eventually consistent or strongly consistent at the time of the request
    • Eventually Consistent Reads (Default)
      • Eventual consistency option maximizes the read throughput.
      • Consistency across all copies is usually reached within a second
      • However, an eventually consistent read might not reflect the results of a recently completed write.
      • Repeating a read after a short time should return the updated data.
      • DynamoDB uses eventually consistent reads, by default.
    • Strongly Consistent Reads
      • Strongly consistent read returns a result that reflects all writes that received a successful response prior to the read
      • Strongly consistent reads are 2x the cost of Eventually consistent reads
      • Strongly Consistent Reads comes with disadvantages
        • A strongly consistent read might not be available if there is a network delay or outage. In this case, DynamoDB may return a server error (HTTP 500).
        • Strongly consistent reads may have higher latency than eventually consistent reads.
        • Strongly consistent reads are not supported on global secondary indexes.
        • Strongly consistent reads use more throughput capacity than eventually consistent reads.
  • Read operations (such as GetItemQuery, and Scan) provide a ConsistentRead parameter, if set to true, DynamoDB uses strongly consistent reads during the operation.
  • Query, GetItem, and BatchGetItem operations perform eventually consistent reads by default
    • Query and GetItem operations can be forced to be strongly consistent
    • Query operations cannot perform strongly consistent reads on Global Secondary Indexes
    • BatchGetItem operations can be forced to be strongly consistent on a per-table basis

DynamoDB Throughput Capacity

Refer to AWS DynamoDB Throughput Capacity post

DynamoDB Secondary Indexes

Refer to AWS DynamoDB Secondary Indexes post

DynamoDB Advanced Topics

Refer to DynamoDB Advanced post, which covers

  • DynamoDB Streams,
  • Triggers,
  • Cross Region Replication,
  • DAX,
  • VPC Endpoints etc.

DynamoDB Performance

  • Automatically scales horizontally
  • runs exclusively on Solid State Drives (SSDs).
    • SSDs help achieve the design goals of predictable low-latency response times for storing and accessing data at any scale.
    • SSDs High I/O performance enables it to serve high-scale request workloads cost efficiently, and to pass this efficiency along in low request pricing
  • allows provisioned table reads and writes
    • Scale up throughput when needed
    • Scale down throughput four times per UTC calendar day
  • automatically partitions, reallocates and re-partitions the data and provisions additional server capacity as the
    • table size grows or
    • provisioned throughput is increased
  • Global Secondary indexes (GSI)
    • can be created upfront or added later

DynamoDB Security

  • Fine Grained Access Control (FGAC) gives a high degree of control over data in the table
  • FGAC helps control who (caller) can access which items or attributes of the table and perform what actions (read/write capability).
  • FGAC is integrated with IAM, which manages the security credentials and the associated permissions.

DynamoDB Encryption

  • Data in Transit Encryption
    • can be done by encrypting sensitive data on the client side or using encrypted connections (TLS)
    • All the data in DynamoDB is encrypted in transit (except the data in DAX)
    • communications to and from DynamoDB use the HTTPS protocol, which protects network traffic by using SSL/TLS encryption.
  • DynamoDB supports Encryption at rest
    • Encryption at rest is enabled on all DynamoDB table data and cannot be disabled
    • Encryption at rest enables encryption for the data persisted (data at rest) in the DynamoDB tables.
    • Encryption at rest includes the base tables, primary key, local and global secondary indexes, streams, global tables, backups, and DynamoDB Accelerator (DAX) clusters
    • Encryption at rest automatically integrates with AWS KMS for managing the keys used for encrypting the tables.
    • Encryption at rest also supports AWS owned CMK, AWS managed CMK, and Customer managed CMK
    • Encryption at rest can be enabled only for a new table and not for an existing table
    • Encryption once enabled for a table, cannot be disabled
    • DynamoDB Streams do not support encryption
    • DynamoDB streams can be used with encrypted tables and are always encrypted with a table-level encryption key
    • On-Demand Backups of encrypted DynamoDB tables are encrypted using S3’s Server-Side Encryption
    • Encryption at rest encrypts the data using 256-bit AES encryption.

DynamoDB Encryption Client

  • DynamoDB Encryption Client is a software library that helps protect the table data before sending it to DynamoDB.
  • Encrypting the sensitive data in transit and at rest helps ensure that the plaintext data isn’t available to any third party, including AWS.
  • Encryption Client encrypts attribute values which can be controlled, but does not encrypt entire table, attribute names or primary key

DynamoDB Costs

  • Index Storage
    • DynamoDB is an indexed data store
      • Billable Data = Raw byte data size + 100 byte per-item storage indexing overhead
  • Provisioned throughput
    • Pay flat, hourly rate based on the capacity reserved as the throughput provisioned for the table
    • one Write Capacity Unit provides one write per second for items < 1KB in size.
    • one Read Capacity Unit provides one strongly consistent read (or two eventually consistent reads) per second for items < 4KB in size.
    • Provisioned throughput charges for every 10 units of Write Capacity and every 50 units of Read Capacity.
  • Reserved capacity
    • Significant savings over the normal price
    • Pay a one-time upfront fee
  • DynamoDB also charges for storage, backup, replication, streams, caching, data transfer out.

DynamoDB Best Practices

Refer blog post DynamoDB Best Practices

Labs

Try Free Introduction to DynamoDB Qwiklabs lab

AWS Certification Exam Practice Questions

  • Questions are collected from Internet and the answers are marked as per my knowledge and understanding (which might differ with yours).
  • AWS services are updated everyday and both the answers and questions might be outdated soon, so research accordingly.
  • AWS exam questions are not updated to keep up the pace with AWS updates, so even if the underlying feature has changed the question might not be updated
  • Open to further feedback, discussion and correction.
  1. Which of the following are use cases for Amazon DynamoDB? Choose 3 answers
    1. Storing BLOB data.
    2. Managing web sessions
    3. Storing JSON documents
    4. Storing metadata for Amazon S3 objects
    5. Running relational joins and complex updates.
    6. Storing large amounts of infrequently accessed data.
  2. You are configuring your company’s application to use Auto Scaling and need to move user state information. Which of the following AWS services provides a shared data store with durability and low latency?
    1. AWS ElastiCache Memcached (does not allow writes)
    2. Amazon Simple Storage Service (does not provide low latency)
    3. Amazon EC2 instance storage (not durable)
    4. Amazon DynamoDB
  3. Does Dynamo DB support in-place atomic updates?
    1. It is not defined
    2. No
    3. Yes
    4. It does support in-place non-atomic updates
  4. What is the maximum write throughput I can provision for a single Dynamic DB table?
    1. 1,000 write capacity units
    2. 100,000 write capacity units
    3. Dynamic DB is designed to scale without limits, but if you go beyond 10,000 you have to contact AWS first
    4. 10,000 write capacity units
  5. For a DynamoDB table, what happens if the application performs more reads or writes than your provisioned capacity?
    1. Nothing
    2. requests above the provisioned capacity will be performed but you will receive 400 error codes.
    3. requests above the provisioned capacity will be performed but you will receive 200 error codes.
    4. requests above the provisioned capacity will be throttled and you will receive 400 error codes.
  6. In which of the following situations might you benefit from using DynamoDB? (Choose 2 answers)
    1. You need fully managed database to handle highly complex queries
    2. You need to deal with massive amount of “hot” data and require very low latency
    3. You need a rapid ingestion of clickstream in order to collect data about user behavior
    4. Your on-premises data center runs Oracle database, and you need to host a backup in AWS cloud
  7. You are designing a file-sharing service. This service will have millions of files in it. Revenue for the service will come from fees based on how much storage a user is using. You also want to store metadata on each file, such as title, description and whether the object is public or private. How do you achieve all of these goals in a way that is economical and can scale to millions of users? [PROFESSIONAL]
    1. Store all files in Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3). Create a bucket for each user. Store metadata in the filename of each object, and access it with LIST commands against the S3 API. (expensive and slow as it returns only 1000 items at a time)
    2. Store all files in Amazon S3. Create Amazon DynamoDB tables for the corresponding key-value pairs on the associated metadata, when objects are uploaded.
    3. Create a striped set of 4000 IOPS Elastic Load Balancing volumes to store the data. Use a database running in Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) to store the metadata.(not economical with volumes)
    4. Create a striped set of 4000 IOPS Elastic Load Balancing volumes to store the data. Create Amazon DynamoDB tables for the corresponding key-value pairs on the associated metadata, when objects are uploaded. (not economical with volumes)
  8. A utility company is building an application that stores data coming from more than 10,000 sensors. Each sensor has a unique ID and will send a datapoint (approximately 1KB) every 10 minutes throughout the day. Each datapoint contains the information coming from the sensor as well as a timestamp. This company would like to query information coming from a particular sensor for the past week very rapidly and want to delete all the data that is older than 4 weeks. Using Amazon DynamoDB for its scalability and rapidity, how do you implement this in the most cost effective way? [PROFESSIONAL]
    1. One table, with a primary key that is the sensor ID and a hash key that is the timestamp (Single table impacts performance)
    2. One table, with a primary key that is the concatenation of the sensor ID and timestamp (Single table and concatenation impacts performance)
    3. One table for each week, with a primary key that is the concatenation of the sensor ID and timestamp (Concatenation will cause queries would be slower, if at all)
    4. One table for each week, with a primary key that is the sensor ID and a hash key that is the timestamp (Composite key with Sensor ID and timestamp would help for faster queries)
  9. You have recently joined a startup company building sensors to measure street noise and air quality in urban areas. The company has been running a pilot deployment of around 100 sensors for 3 months. Each sensor uploads 1KB of sensor data every minute to a backend hosted on AWS. During the pilot, you measured a peak of 10 IOPS on the database, and you stored an average of 3GB of sensor data per month in the database. The current deployment consists of a load-balanced auto scaled Ingestion layer using EC2 instances and a PostgreSQL RDS database with 500GB standard storage. The pilot is considered a success and your CEO has managed to get the attention or some potential investors. The business plan requires a deployment of at least 100K sensors, which needs to be supported by the backend. You also need to store sensor data for at least two years to be able to compare year over year Improvements. To secure funding, you have to make sure that the platform meets these requirements and leaves room for further scaling. Which setup will meet the requirements? [PROFESSIONAL]
    1. Add an SQS queue to the ingestion layer to buffer writes to the RDS instance (RDS instance will not support data for 2 years)
    2. Ingest data into a DynamoDB table and move old data to a Redshift cluster (Handle 10K IOPS ingestion and store data into Redshift for analysis)
    3. Replace the RDS instance with a 6 node Redshift cluster with 96TB of storage (Does not handle the ingestion issue)
    4. Keep the current architecture but upgrade RDS storage to 3TB and 10K provisioned IOPS (RDS instance will not support data for 2 years)
  10. Does Amazon DynamoDB support both increment and decrement atomic operations?
    1. No, neither increment nor decrement operations.
    2. Only increment, since decrement are inherently impossible with DynamoDB’s data model.
    3. Only decrement, since increment are inherently impossible with DynamoDB’s data model.
    4. Yes, both increment and decrement operations.
  11. What is the data model of DynamoDB?
    1. “Items”, with Keys and one or more Attribute; and “Attribute”, with Name and Value.
    2. “Database”, which is a set of “Tables”, which is a set of “Items”, which is a set of “Attributes”.
    3. “Table”, a collection of Items; “Items”, with Keys and one or more Attribute; and “Attribute”, with Name and Value.
    4. “Database”, a collection of Tables; “Tables”, with Keys and one or more Attribute; and “Attribute”, with Name and Value.
  12. In regard to DynamoDB, for which one of the following parameters does Amazon not charge you?
    1. Cost per provisioned write units
    2. Cost per provisioned read units
    3. Storage cost
    4. I/O usage within the same Region
  13. Which statements about DynamoDB are true? Choose 2 answers.
    1. DynamoDB uses a pessimistic locking model
    2. DynamoDB uses optimistic concurrency control
    3. DynamoDB uses conditional writes for consistency
    4. DynamoDB restricts item access during reads
    5. DynamoDB restricts item access during writes
  14. Which of the following is an example of a good DynamoDB hash key schema for provisioned throughput efficiency?
    1. User ID, where the application has many different users.
    2. Status Code where most status codes is the same.
    3. Device ID, where one is by far more popular than all the others.
    4. Game Type, where there are three possible game types.
  15. You are inserting 1000 new items every second in a DynamoDB table. Once an hour these items are analyzed and then are no longer needed. You need to minimize provisioned throughput, storage, and API calls. Given these requirements, what is the most efficient way to manage these Items after the analysis?
    1. Retain the items in a single table
    2. Delete items individually over a 24 hour period
    3. Delete the table and create a new table per hour
    4. Create a new table per hour
  16. When using a large Scan operation in DynamoDB, what technique can be used to minimize the impact of a scan on a table’s provisioned throughput?
    1. Set a smaller page size for the scan (Refer link)
    2. Use parallel scans
    3. Define a range index on the table
    4. Prewarm the table by updating all items
  17. In regard to DynamoDB, which of the following statements is correct?
    1. An Item should have at least two value sets, a primary key and another attribute.
    2. An Item can have more than one attributes
    3. A primary key should be single-valued.
    4. An attribute can have one or several other attributes.
  18. Which one of the following statements is NOT an advantage of DynamoDB being built on Solid State Drives?
    1. serve high-scale request workloads
    2. low request pricing
    3. high I/O performance of WebApp on EC2 instance (Not related to DynamoDB)
    4. low-latency response times
  19. Which one of the following operations is NOT a DynamoDB operation?
    1. BatchWriteItem
    2. DescribeTable
    3. BatchGetItem
    4. BatchDeleteItem (DeleteItem deletes a single item in a table by primary key, but BatchDeleteItem doesn’t exist)
  20. What item operation allows the retrieval of multiple items from a DynamoDB table in a single API call?
    1. GetItem
    2. BatchGetItem
    3. GetMultipleItems
    4. GetItemRange
  21. An application stores payroll information nightly in DynamoDB for a large number of employees across hundreds of offices. Item attributes consist of individual name, office identifier, and cumulative daily hours. Managers run reports for ranges of names working in their office. One query is. “Return all Items in this office for names starting with A through E”. Which table configuration will result in the lowest impact on provisioned throughput for this query? [PROFESSIONAL]
    1. Configure the table to have a hash index on the name attribute, and a range index on the office identifier
    2. Configure the table to have a range index on the name attribute, and a hash index on the office identifier
    3. Configure a hash index on the name attribute and no range index
    4. Configure a hash index on the office Identifier attribute and no range index
  22. You need to migrate 10 million records in one hour into DynamoDB. All records are 1.5KB in size. The data is evenly distributed across the partition key. How many write capacity units should you provision during this batch load?
    1. 6667
    2. 4166
    3. 5556 ( 2 write units (1 for each 1KB) * 10 million/3600 secs, refer link)
    4. 2778
  23. A meteorological system monitors 600 temperature gauges, obtaining temperature samples every minute and saving each sample to a DynamoDB table. Each sample involves writing 1K of data and the writes are evenly distributed over time. How much write throughput is required for the target table?
    1. 1 write capacity unit
    2. 10 write capacity units ( 1 write unit for 1K * 600 gauges/60 secs)
    3. 60 write capacity units
    4. 600 write capacity units
    5. 3600 write capacity units
  24. You are building a game high score table in DynamoDB. You will store each user’s highest score for each game, with many games, all of which have relatively similar usage levels and numbers of players. You need to be able to look up the highest score for any game. What’s the best DynamoDB key structure?
    1. HighestScore as the hash / only key.
    2. GameID as the hash key, HighestScore as the range key. (hash (partition) key should be the GameID, and there should be a range key for ordering HighestScore. Refer link)
    3. GameID as the hash / only key.
    4. GameID as the range / only key.
  25. You are experiencing performance issues writing to a DynamoDB table. Your system tracks high scores for video games on a marketplace. Your most popular game experiences all of the performance issues. What is the most likely problem?
    1. DynamoDB’s vector clock is out of sync, because of the rapid growth in request for the most popular game.
    2. You selected the Game ID or equivalent identifier as the primary partition key for the table. (Refer link)
    3. Users of the most popular video game each perform more read and write requests than average.
    4. You did not provision enough read or write throughput to the table.
  26. You are writing to a DynamoDB table and receive the following exception:” ProvisionedThroughputExceededException”. Though according to your Cloudwatch metrics for the table, you are not exceeding your provisioned throughput. What could be an explanation for this?
    1. You haven’t provisioned enough DynamoDB storage instances
    2. You’re exceeding your capacity on a particular Range Key
    3. You’re exceeding your capacity on a particular Hash Key (Hash key determines the partition and hence the performance)
    4. You’re exceeding your capacity on a particular Sort Key
    5. You haven’t configured DynamoDB Auto Scaling triggers
  27. Your company sells consumer devices and needs to record the first activation of all sold devices. Devices are not activated until the information is written on a persistent database. Activation data is very important for your company and must be analyzed daily with a MapReduce job. The execution time of the data analysis process must be less than three hours per day. Devices are usually sold evenly during the year, but when a new device model is out, there is a predictable peak in activation’s, that is, for a few days there are 10 times or even 100 times more activation’s than in average day. Which of the following databases and analysis framework would you implement to better optimize costs and performance for this workload? [PROFESSIONAL]
    1. Amazon RDS and Amazon Elastic MapReduce with Spot instances.
    2. Amazon DynamoDB and Amazon Elastic MapReduce with Spot instances.
    3. Amazon RDS and Amazon Elastic MapReduce with Reserved instances.
    4. Amazon DynamoDB and Amazon Elastic MapReduce with Reserved instances

References