AWS Security – Whitepaper – Certification

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AWS Security Whitepaper

AWS Security whitepaper is one of the most important whitepaper for the Certification perspective

Shared Security Responsibility Model

In the Shared Security Responsibility Model, AWS is responsible for securing the underlying infrastructure that supports the cloud, and you’re responsible for anything you put on the cloud or connect to the cloud.
AWS Security Shared Responsibility Model

AWS Security Responsibilities

  • AWS is responsible for protecting the global infrastructure that runs all of the services offered in the AWS cloud. This infrastructure is comprised of the hardware, software, networking, and facilities that run AWS services.
  • AWS provide several reports from third-party auditors who have verified their compliance with a variety of computer security standards and regulations
  • AWS is responsible for the security configuration of its products that are considered managed services for e.g. RDS, DynamoDB
  • For Managed Services, AWS will handle basic security tasks like guest operating system (OS) and database patching, firewall configuration, and disaster recovery.

Customer Security Responsibilities

  • AWS Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) products for e.g. EC2, VPC, S3 are completely under your control and require you to perform all of the necessary security configuration and management tasks.
  • Management of the guest OS (including updates and security patches), any application software or utilities installed on the instances, and the configuration of the AWS-provided firewall (called a security group) on each instance
  • For most of these managed services, all you have to do is configure logical access controls for the resources and protect the account credentials

AWS Global Infrastructure Security  

AWS Compliance Program

IT infrastructure that AWS provides to its customers is designed and managed in alignment with security best practices and a variety of IT security standards, including:
  • SOC 1/SSAE 16/ISAE 3402 (formerly SAS 70)
  • SOC 2
  • SOC 3
  • FISMA, DIACAP, and FedRAMP
  • DOD CSM Levels 1-5
  • PCI DSS Level 1
  • ISO 9001 / ISO 27001
  • ITAR
  • FIPS 140-2
  • MTCS Level 3
And meet several industry-specific standards, including:
  • Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS)
  • Cloud Security Alliance (CSA)
  • Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
  • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
  • Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA)

Physical and Environmental Security 

Storage Decommissioning

  • When a storage device has reached the end of its useful life, AWS procedures include a decommissioning process that is designed to prevent customer data from being exposed to unauthorized individuals.
  • AWS uses the techniques detailed in DoD 5220.22-M (National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual) or NIST 800-88 (Guidelines for Media Sanitization) to destroy data as part of the decommissioning process.
  • All decommissioned magnetic storage devices are degaussed and physically destroyed in accordance with industry-standard practices.

Network Security 

Amazon Corporate Segregation

  • AWS Production network is segregated from the Amazon Corporate network and requires a separate set of credentials for logical access.
  • Amazon Corporate network relies on user IDs, passwords, and Kerberos, while the AWS Production network require SSH public-key authentication through a bastion host.

Networking Monitoring & Protection

AWS utilizes a wide variety of automated monitoring systems to provide a high level of service performance and availability. These tools monitor server and network usage, port scanning activities, application usage, and unauthorized intrusion attempts. The tools have the ability to set custom performance metrics thresholds for unusual activity.
AWS network provides protection against traditional network security issues
  1. DDOS – AWS uses proprietary DDoS mitigation techniques. Additionally, AWS’s networks are multi-homed across a number of providers to achieve Internet access diversity.
  2. Man in the Middle attacks – AWS APIs are available via SSL-protected endpoints which provide server authentication
  3. IP spoofing – AWS-controlled, host-based firewall infrastructure will not permit an instance to send traffic with a source IP or MAC address other than its own.
  4. Port Scanning – Unauthorized port scans by Amazon EC2 customers are a violation of the AWS Acceptable Use Policy. When unauthorized port scanning is detected by AWS, it is stopped and blocked. Penetration/Vulnerability testing can be performed only on your own instances, with mandatory prior approval, and must not violate the AWS Acceptable Use Policy.
  5. Packet Sniffing by other tenants – It is not possible for a virtual instance running in promiscuous mode to receive or “sniff” traffic that is intended for a different virtual instance. While you can place your interfaces into promiscuous mode, the hypervisor will not deliver any traffic to them that is not addressed to them. Even two virtual instances that are owned by the same customer located on the same physical host cannot listen to each other’s traffic.

Secure Design Principles

AWS’s development process follows :-
  • Secure software development best practices, which include formal design reviews by the AWS Security Team, threat modeling, and completion of a risk assessment
  • Static code analysis tools are run as a part of the standard build process
  • Recurring penetration testing performed by carefully selected industry experts

AWS Account Security Features

AWS account security features includes credentials for access control, HTTPS endpoints for encrypted data transmission, the creation of separate IAM user accounts, user activity logging for security monitoring, and Trusted Advisor security checks

AWS Credentials

AWS IAM Credentials

Individual User Accounts

Do not use the Root account, instead create an IAM User for each user and provide them with a unique set of Credentials and grant least privilege as required to perform their job function

Secure HTTPS Access Points

Use HTTPS, provided by all AWS services, for data transmissions, which uses public-key cryptography to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and forgery

Security Logs

Use Amazon CloudTrail which provides logs of all requests for AWS resources within the account and captures information about every API call to every AWS resource you use, including sign-in events

Trusted Advisor Security Checks

Use Trusted Advisor service which helps inspect AWS environment and provide recommendations when opportunities may exist to optimize cost, improve system performance, or close security gaps

AWS Certification Exam Practice Questions

  • Questions are collected from Internet and the answers are marked as per my knowledge and understanding (which might differ with yours).
  • AWS services are updated everyday and both the answers and questions might be outdated soon, so research accordingly.
  • AWS exam questions are not updated to keep up the pace with AWS updates, so even if the underlying feature has changed the question might not be updated
  • Open to further feedback, discussion and correction.
  1. In the shared security model, AWS is responsible for which of the following security best practices (check all that apply) :
    1. Penetration testing
    2. Operating system account security management (User responsibility)
    3. Threat modeling
    4. User group access management (User responsibility)
    5. Static code analysis (AWS development cycle responsibility)
  2. You are running a web-application on AWS consisting of the following components an Elastic Load Balancer (ELB) an Auto-Scaling Group of EC2 instances running Linux/PHP/Apache, and Relational DataBase Service (RDS) MySQL. Which security measures fall into AWS’s responsibility?
    1. Protect the EC2 instances against unsolicited access by enforcing the principle of least-privilege access (User responsibility)
    2. Protect against IP spoofing or packet sniffing
    3. Assure all communication between EC2 instances and ELB is encrypted (User responsibility)
    4. Install latest security patches on ELB. RDS and EC2 instances (User responsibility)
  3. In AWS, which security aspects are the customer’s responsibility? Choose 4 answers
    1. Controlling physical access to compute resources (AWS responsibility)
    2. Patch management on the EC2 instances operating system
    3. Encryption of EBS (Elastic Block Storage) volumes
    4. Life-cycle management of IAM credentials
    5. Decommissioning storage devices (AWS responsibility)
    6. Security Group and ACL (Access Control List) settings
  4. Per the AWS Acceptable Use Policy, penetration testing of EC2 instances:
    1. May be performed by AWS, and will be performed by AWS upon customer request.
    2. May be performed by AWS, and is periodically performed by AWS.
    3. Are expressly prohibited under all circumstances.
    4. May be performed by the customer on their own instances with prior authorization from AWS.
    5. May be performed by the customer on their own instances, only if performed from EC2 instances
  5. Which is an operational process performed by AWS for data security?
    1. AES-256 encryption of data stored on any shared storage device (User responsibility)
    2. Decommissioning of storage devices using industry-standard practices
    3. Background virus scans of EBS volumes and EBS snapshots (No virus scan is performed by AWS on User instances)
    4. Replication of data across multiple AWS Regions (AWS does not replicate data across regions unless done by User)
    5. Secure wiping of EBS data when an EBS volume is unmounted (data is not wiped off on EBS volume when unmounted and it can be remounted on other EC2 instance)

References

12 thoughts on “AWS Security – Whitepaper – Certification

  1. Hi Jayendra,

    Q2.
    >>Install latest security patches on **ELB**. RDS and EC2 instances (User responsibility)
    Is Installing patches on ELB user responsibility?

    Cheers,
    Satish

    1. The options for the question seems partially correct as EC2 is solely user responsibility.
      For RDS, the patches are applied in the user selected window.
      For ELB I am circumspect too ad they are applied by AWS. However, changes to security policies (for e.g. deprecation) needs to be taken care by the user.

  2. hiiiii jayendra,

    penetration testing is done by aws to my knowledge….can you check question no 4 for me ?

    1. Penetration Testing needs to be approved by AWS and you need to submit request for it.
      As you own the applications on AWS and have access to the resources, only you can perform the penetration testing

    1. There are 2 aspects on Penetration testing, done by AWS on their services and other by the Customer on the applications they build and the configuration they perform.
      Regarding the question, in the Shared responsibility model AWS performs the penetration testing, threat modeling and Static code analysis of their services like S3, CloudFront as well as infrastructure and network on which VPC are configured.
      EC2 security and IAM is user responsibility.

  3. Hi

    Ques 2 states that installing security patches on RDS is user responsibility. This is not the correct case. RDS is an managed service. User can only **schedule** patching but the **installation** is done by AWS.

    1. The options for the question seems partially correct as EC2 is solely user responsibility.
      For RDS, the patches are applied in the user selected window.
      For ELB I am circumspect too ad they are applied by AWS. However, changes to security policies (for e.g. deprecation) needs to be taken care by the user.

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